Friday, April 28, 2017

Friday Information in late April of 2017

We stand in a crossroads in America. Since the fall of the Soviet Union (which was over 25 years ago), we face new challenges and hope. We face the evils of terrorism and bigotry, but a new generation of Americans and others still incorporate that creed of equality and human justice into their hearts. So, we carry onward. We not only carry onward with the progressive credo of collective power and economic justice. We live out the creed of the Dream by defending immigrants, loving black people (who made an inedible mark in world history. I am Black and Beautiful), honoring women, and promoting the rights of minorities. So, we press on with the wisdom of the ancestors and the courageousness of modern times. We press on fully committed to fight for the cherished goal that humankind desires, which is about peace and social tranquility. This fight for justice won't be easy, but we are always willing to courageously sacrifice with earnest and with passion for our liberation. There is another magnificent story and it shows many lessons. First, the young twins are filled with wisdom. Akhea S. Mitchell is right to proclaim the truth that education is a vital way to achieve a great standard of living and happiness. Education is one important gateway where our community can grow and achieve monumental dreams. The twins from Georgia receiving a scholarship of $900,000 is excellent news. We all congratulate their accomplishments. Also, it is important to recognize their Black Excellence. Their glory is real and inspirational. They have a 4.5 GPA and a 3.9 GPA respectively, which is amazing. They are in high school now and these young Sisters are very blessed. They seek to go to Howard University (which is a great HBCU and it has a powerful legacy in black American culture). I wish both Sisters the best.
#Black Excellence.

Also, it is important to acknowledge the Birthday of Sister Coretta Scott King. She lived from 1927 to 2006. She lived a life as a mother, a civil rights activist, an anti-war activist, and a black woman who lived a fruitful existence. For decades, she has inspired Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to carry onward in the tradition of nonviolence and peaceful resistance against injustice. She could write, sing songs, and she was a great organizer of various people. She was born in Heiberger, Alabama. Coretta Scott graduated valedictorian from Lincoln Normal School in 1945 where she played trumpet and piano, sang in the chorus, and participated in school musicals. She enrolled at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio during her senior year at Lincoln. June 18, 1953 was the date of her marriage. She fought for the rights of women. She opposed the Iraq War. She opposed the Vietnam War. She fought against apartheid. Her funeral was attended by some 10,000 people, including four of five living US presidents. She was temporarily buried on the grounds of the King Center until being interred next to her husband. She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame and was the first African-American to lie in State in the Georgia State Capitol. Coretta Scott King was a hero.
Rest in Power Sister Coretta Scott King. This is a very important issue. Activism should be executed in rescuing missing black women and black girls. In the final analysis, when one person is kidnapped, it is a threat against the whole of the human family. Also, it is good that many people want to refute the evil stereotypes about kidnapped black females. Kidnapped black women and girls exist in many socioeconomic levels. People ought to realize that. The Congressional Caucus on Black Women and Girls is doing the right thing in publicly showing information about this epidemic and establishing solutions.

So, the beginning of the war started with Israel’s preemptive, surprise attack on the Egyptian Air Force. On June 5, 1967 (on 7:45 Israeli time), civil defense sirens sounded throughout Israel. The IAF (or the Israeli Airforce) was used to execute Operation Focus (Moked). It involved all, but nearly 200 operational jets executed a mass attack against Egyptian airfields. The Egyptian defensive infrastructure was poor back then. There had no airfields. They were equipped with aircraft shelters. They tried to protect Egypt’s warplanes. Most of the Israeli warplanes headed out over the Mediterranean Sea. They flew low in order for them to avoid radar detection, before going into Egypt. Others flew over the Red Sea. Meanwhile, the Egyptians hindered their own defense by shutting down their entire air defense system. They were worried that rebel Egyptian forces would shoot down the plane carrying Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer and Lt. General Sidqui Mahmoud, who were en route from al Maza to Bir Tamada in the Sinai (to meet the commanders of the troops stationed there). It didn’t make a difference since the Israeli pilots came in below Egyptian radar cover well below the lowest point at which its SA-2 surface to air missile batteries could bring down an aircraft. Although, the powerful Jordanian radar facility in Ajloun detected waves of aircraft approaching Egypt and reported the code war for “war” up the Egyptian command chain, Egyptian command and communication problems prevented the warning from teaching the targeted airfields. The Israelis used a mixed attack strategy. They used bombing and strafing runs against planes parked on the ground. They bombed to disable runways with special tarmac shredding penetration bombs developed jointly with France. They used this action to leave surviving aircraft to be unable to take off. The runway at the Arish airfield was spared.

The Israelis expected to turn into a military airport for their transports after the war. Surviving aircraft was taken out by later attack waves. The operation was more successful than expected, catching the Egyptian Air Force on the ground, with few Israeli losses. Only 4 unarmed Egyptian training flights were in the air when the strike began. A total of 338 Egyptian aircraft were destroyed and 100 pilots were killed. Although, the number of aircraft lost by the Egyptians is disputed. Many of the Egyptian planes who were lost were all 30 Tu-16 bombers, 27 out of 40 II-28 bombers, 12 Su-17 fighter bombers, over 90 MiG-21s, 20 MiG-19s, 25 MiG-17 fighters, and around 32 assorted transport planes and helicopters. In addition, Egyptian radars and SAM missiles were also attacked and destroyed. The Israelis lost 19 planes, including two destroyed in air-to-air combat and 13 downed by anti-aircraft artillery. One Israeli plane, which was damaged and unable to break radio silence, was shot down by Israeli Hawk missiles after it strayed over the Negev Nuclear Research Center. Another was destroyed by an exploding Egyptian bomber. The attack made Israelis to have better air fire power in the war. Attacks on other Arabic air forces by Israel took place later in the day. Hostilities broke out on other fronts. The large number of Arabic aircraft destroyed by Israel at first was called “greatly exaggerated” by the Western press. Yet, the Egyptian Air Force along with other Arabic air forces attacked by Israel made practically no appearance for the remaining days of the conflict. This proved that the numbers were authentic. All over the war, Israeli aircraft continued to strafed Arabic airfield runways to prevent their return to usability. Meanwhile, Egyptian state run radio had reported an Egyptian victory. This was false and it was false to claim that 70 Israeli planes had been downed on the first day of fighting.

The War existed in the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula too. The Egyptian forces were made up of 7 divisions. They had 4 armored two infantry and one mechanized infantry. In total, Egypt had about 1000 troops. They had 900-950 tanks in the Sinai. They were backed by APCs and 1,000 artillery pieces. This arrangement was thought to be based on the Soviet doctrine. This doctrine was about mobile armor units at strategic depth provide a dynamic defense while infantry units engaged in defensive battles. Israeli forces concentrated on the border with Egypt which included six armored brigades, one infantry brigade, one mechanized infantry brigade, three paratrooper brigades, etc. This is about 70,000 men and 700 tanks. They were organized in 3 armored divisions. The Israelis were massed on the border on the night before the war. They camouflaged themselves and observed radio silence before being ordered to advance. The Israelis wanted to surprise the Egyptian forces in timing (the attack exactly coinciding with the IAF strike on Egyptian airfields). They wanted to use location in their attacks in attacks via northern and central Sinai route. They didn’t want a repeat of the 1956 war. They didn’t use IDF to attack using central and southern routes. The Israelis used a combined force flanking approach instead of direct tank assaults.  

By Timothy

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Important News,_North_Carolina)

Growing our Consciousness

A police officer pointing guns at 5 innocent kids is totally unacceptable. If there were 5 white kids, would the officer point the gun at them like that? That's an important question to ask, because study and study prove that anti-black racial bias exists in the police institution. There is no excuse for the police officer to treat black children as criminals when they are innocent and unarmed. This is what tons of black people go through everyday in the streets of America. The DOJ proves that many cops have enacted police brutality and economically exploitative measures. Yet, many police agencies refuse to change their protocols since some of them believe in the myth of police infallibility. Some believe that the cops should be given more privileges than citizens (which is an evil philosophy). The police is no master to me. We pay their taxes. They should serve us not vice versa. Therefore, revolutionary change is needed. I feel for the parents of the five black children. It's a shame that innocent kids fear the cops abusing their human rights when they just came from a basketball game. This story refutes respectability politics and makes us more inspired to oppose cop tyranny. I am in opposition to tyrants with badges.

I want to make this point too. It is always important to acknowledge the heroes who helped us along the way. Also, we should have self reflection from time to time. That is important since life will never be a crystal stair. It will be filled with adversity and challenges at times. Yet, with hope, faith, and constructive action, we can achieve an excellent amount of blessings that benefit others and our own lives. We are all interconnected directly or indirectly as human beings. We cherish our heritage without malice and without apology. Likewise, we seek the same thing that others seek. We seek the strengthening of our families, the improvements in the lives of our neighbors, and a world that has justice and true freedom. We will fight for this Dream since our ancestors (who experienced chains and indescribable turmoil) never gave up. They suffered a whole lot worst than us today. When we do what is right, we make our ancestors proud and the Creator proud too. I won't quit. I won't give up. Work is necessary and having time to relax and have humor at times is fine too (for life is not just about bread and work alone. Life is about the complex display of enjoyment and fun too). Also, it is important to make a distinction between bad Americans and Americans who are doing what is right. There are still many Americans who are helping the sick, helping the poor, standing up for voting rights, believing in social justice, standing up for freedom, and speaking truth to power. There is still a remnant of Americans who not only believe in equality and justice, but live it in their everyday lives. So, I do honor the outstanding Americans and other people in the globe (irrespective of their nationality) who are following in the path of true liberty.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Gina Torres. She is now 48 years old. She is a famous actress. She loves science fiction and that is why many of her movie and TV roles deal with science fiction and adventure. She is a very talented woman. She was born in NYC. She lived in Washington Heights, and then moved to the Bronx, NYC (or the Boogie Down). She's a great singer too. Torres, a mezzo-soprano, began singing at an early age and attended Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts in New York City. She also trained in opera and jazz and performed in a gospel choir. Today, she is acting in many diverse roles. Her husband is Laurence Fishburne. She has children too. I wish Sister in a Torres more blessings. The stories about Henrietta Lacks and Georgetown should be shown. It is a historical fact that the unjust exploitation of black people have caused massive financial profits among many corporate institutions at the expense of the blood of our people.. There must be compensation involving the rectification of injustices. There is also the double standard. When non-black people call for compensation of atrocities they have experienced, much more people advance that compensation (in dealing with the Holocaust, the Japanese interment camps, the Native American genocides, etc.). When black people even ask for a moderate amount of compensation or reparations, then many in society either are hesitant about it, minimize it, or resist it. We know that life is a struggle and many elitists make dollars, but they have no sense in how they conduct their lives. Henrietta Lacks was a brave woman and her story signifies how health care must not only include efficiency and adequate coverage (Immense power and influence resides among large insurance companies without question). It must encompass human integrity too.

I'm pro-black and I make no apologizes for it. Being pro-black has nothing to do with hating other people in an evil way. It has to do with standing up for black people, loving black cultural expression, honoring Blackness, and believing in black liberation. No one should use tactics of shaming people who are pro-black. That is wrong. What is right is being pro-black and I will continue to show pro-black messages here without regret. Therefore, I will always stand up for my core convictions.  Days ago was the day of Nina Simone's passing since 2003 at the age of 70. She was a legend in every sense of the word. For decades, she suffered the evils of racism, sexism, and colorism, but her spirit lives on eternally. Her legacy is extensive. One of her greatest friends was the late Lorraine Hansberry, who was a great writer and playwright in her own right. Also, Nina Simone has a glorious daughter fighting the good fight in our generation. She played the piano magnificently and she sang. She didn't just sing. She sang. Her words outlined the aspirations of black people desiring freedom and the legitimate anger at injustice. She showed joy and happiness in her music too. Nina Simone wanted justice for our people and she loved black people. We love her. We love her walk, her talk, her songs, and her Blackness. We love her inspirational tone in seeing us cherish the gift of life. We honor her lyrics and her legacy of hope, strength, and expressing life. Nina Simone was a gorgeous black woman who was the living manifestation of Black Womanhood. She gave power to generations of Sisters and Brothers. She lived in France for years. She believed in liberation and we miss her. Still, Nina Simone would want us to continue to live and to fight for freedom. Yes, we are:
Rest in Power Sister Nina Simone

Black women have every right to show their voices. Shea Moisture have made it clear that they wanted to go into a direction that disregarded the interests of black women hair care. Therefore, they issued that ad campaign, which failed. That is precisely why Shea Moisture backtracked. It was not because of sincerity. It was because they were afraid of the legitimate power from black women. Many black women are not buying their products anymore and this shows the massive economic force that the black community possesses. Great people here have written about Black Wall Street. That example not only shows great black entrepreneurship. It describes how institutions are key in building up a power base in our community. Black Wall Street in Tulsa, Oklahoma had stores, restaurants, and other facets of society. There was a Black Wall Street in Durham, North Carolina too. Urban renewal harmed Durham's black population. Urban renewal is about the 1% using policies to relocate people, end structures, and radically change communities. People from across the political spectrum have outlined the mistakes of urban renewal. Today, the people have firmly and rightfully spoken in strong opposition to Shea Moisture. The glory and beauty of black women hair must be honored.

By Timothy

Monday, April 24, 2017

A crumbling political order in France's election

Rise! The Road to Civil Rights (1940-1968). Full Episode

Macron and neo-fascist Le Pen advance to run-off in French presidential elections

Emmanuel Macron And Marine Le Pen Set To Win First Round Of France’s Presidential Election

The Current Events of 2017

Right now, tensions between America and North Korea are high. North Korea, years ago, (according to the Guardian) has received investments from the ABB (which is a Western company). Later, North Korea has further developed its nuclear program. North Korea has tested many missiles across the region of East Asia. This is a new era too. The Secretary of State Tillerson and Vice President Mike Pence said that all options are on the table involving North Korea. There are accusations of the U.S. using hacking to stop the recent North Korean missile test. Tillerson also said that he wants to explore diplomatic, security, and economic measures to handle the situation. Right now, China has blocked some of the coal imports into North Korea.   In the Sea of Japan, the USS Carl Vinson aircraft carrier is soon to come there. China wants cooperation in the solution making process since a war will cause tons of North Korean refugees to come into china, a destabilization of the region, and economic problems in China. China rejects any U.S. military response against Pyongyang, but they don’t want extreme tensions in the region either. Russia is allied politically with China, so Russia has similar views as China has on the North Korean issue. Trump wants North Korea to dismantle its nuclear and ballistic missile programs. This just isn’t going to happen anytime soon if at all. The U.S. and South Korea has been involved in war games. Russian aircraft has been flying near Alaska recently. South Korea’s Unification Ministry spokesman Lee Duk-haeng indicated that US and South Korean forces were on heightened alert. “We are closely watching the situation and will not be letting our guards down,” he said. America wants Chinese President Xi Jinping to put more pressure on North Korea to comply with their goals. Japan is an ally of America, so meetings will occur among American, South Korean, and Japanese officials. The reason why the U.S. military hasn’t executed military attacks in North Korea is because South Korea would be devastated in artillery strikes (even if North Korea doesn’t use nuclear weapons). U.S. military troops are stationed in South Korea too. Such an unwise conflict will be harmful for the whole region and the world at large. So, the most peaceful solution to this problem is a total diplomatic solution.  

This year’s French elections are one of the most important elections in the world. Many people are exploiting the violent incident on the Champs Elysees (which was done by a gunman who is alleged to have been acting on behalf of ISIS) as an excuse to promote xenophobia and extreme nationalism. There are more than 50,000 soldiers and policemen in France being deployed to polling stations. The elections will change Europe forever. Karim Cheurfi, a French citizen and career criminal, who was sentenced to 15 years in prison in 2003 for shooting and nearly killing two policemen, but later released on appeal, was last arrested in February after demanding weapons and stating he wanted to kill policemen. He was released supposedly because the “level of danger” he posed was not at the priority level. Though he was an Islamic State (IS) sympathizer who was being followed by French domestic intelligence at least since March, his case was treated as a common law, not terrorist, case. France has strict gun control laws, but Cheufi amassed an arsenal of weapons. Conservative candidate François Fillon demanded the eradication of “Islamist totalitarianism” and called for the “suspension” of the campaign. Le Pen denounced the “incredible laxity of the courts” and demanded the expulsion of all foreigners with intelligence files. Fillon, Le Pen and Emmanuel Macron, the candidate of the On the March movement, backed by France’s Socialist Party (PS) government, all canceled their campaign events recently. The police confronted the Anti-capitalist Party (NPA) candidate Philippe Poutou who wanted the police to be unarmed. The police called him a slur and said that they would keep their weapons. Anti-Muslim propaganda is common in America and in France. The Socialist Party (which is center left) faces issues since they have promoted austerity, a state of emergency (which ended basic democratic rights), anti-labor policies, etc. which are against real, progressive principles. There is a rising anti-war movement in the world too.  Macron, Le Pen, Fillon and Mélenchon are now in a virtual tie, and over one-third of voters are still undecided. Emmanuel Macron is a center right neoliberal. France is in a crossroads in its history. France could leave the EU. Most French people want jobs, fair wages, and improved social conditions. The issue is that many of the major candidates have advocated for mass job cuts, tens of billions of euros have been cut in austerity measures, etc. There has been increases in military spending, and a return to the draft. Mélenchon (who is the left of the Socialist Party) himself reacted by declaring on Twitter his “personal solidarity” with Le Pen (who leads the right wing National Front. The NF claims to be anti-globalism, but anti-globalism to the far right is about the nefarious philosophies of anti-international solidarity, anti-immigrant, and anti-multiculturalism. We need international cooperation not corporate globalism), Fillon (who is center right) and Macron on issue of terror. So, imperialism and austerity are real threats in France. The whole world is watching France to see the results of the elections.

Xenophobia is a key part of the supporters of Trump. Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly defended the deportation of the Dreamer Juan Manuel Montes. He is a 23 year old Mexican citizen who was expelled from America in February of 2017. This comes despite of the fact that he was actively enrolled in the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program or DACA. DACA is meant to protect undocumented immigrants who were brought to the U.S. as children from being deported. This is the first case of a Dreamer being deported. Lawyers for Montes filed suit in federal court in Southern California. They are demanding that the Trump administration to release documents relating to his case. Montes lived in America since he was 9. He was arrested, interrogated, and walked across the border from Calexico to Mexicali on February 17, 2017 despite being covered by the DACA program through 2018. In the program, enrollees are required to reapply every 2 years. Montes’ lawyers said in court filings that their client was assaulted and beaten in Mexicali. He was desperate to return to his home and family. He tried to scale a border wall 2 days later and he was caught by U.S. border police and deported once again to Mexico. The DHS or the Department of Homeland Security oversees the Customs and Border Protection. It has thousands of border police. The DHS has refused all requests from Montes’ defense team for documents on the case.  In response to the lawsuit, it claims that Montes was not deported on February 17, but voluntarily crossed into Mexico without obtaining prior permission from US Citizenship and Immigration Services, the federal agency that approves DACA applications. This is proven to be false. That, according to DHS, along with four prior convictions for petty offenses—one for shoplifting and three for driving without a license—invalidated his DACA status. However, US Citizenship and Immigration Services had ruled that these offenses were not sufficiently serious to vacate Montes’ DACA status, extending it through 2018. Kelly has shown half-truths and lies about Montes’ deportation. He said Montes had been an active DACA enrollee but had ceased to be one when he supposedly chose to cross into Mexico. In addition, Kelly maintained, Montes’ own behavior—meaning his prior convictions—had deprived him of DACA protection. Trump said that he won’t target DACA enrollees for deportation. Yet, one DACA member was deported. There are almost 800,000 people in the DACA program. Members of DACA submit to background checks. They report to immigration authorities. Authorities know who they are. Sessions wants to deport millions of undocumented workers including DACA enrollees. Sessions wants to withdraw federal funds from cities who are sanctuary cities. Sanctuary cities are found in New York City, Seattle, Chicago, El Paso, etc. In another interview recently, Sessions denounced Hawaii-based federal judge Derrick Watson for holding up Trump’s travel ban on six Muslim-majority countries.  The enemies are immigration are clear in their intentions. We are clear in promoting immigrant rights now and forever.

The Syrian civil war continues. American forces accuse Syria of using chemical weapons against civilians. This comes about in a complex civil war. On April 7, 2017, the U.S. executed an unprovoked air strike against Syrian territories. There is no conclusive evidence that Syria executed a chemical attack in the village of Khan Sheikhun in Syria’s Idlib province, which reportedly killed scores of people. Since then, the US has systematically blocked demands by Syria and its two principal allies, Russia and Iran, for an objective investigation of the alleged chemical attack by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). There should be a conclusive, independent investigation to find the criminals who has done the evil chemical attack in Syria. The West wants regime change in Syria. The chemical disarmament of Syria was carried out under a deal brokered by Moscow in 2013 when the Obama administration backed down from a threat to launch airstrikes against Syria over another alleged chemical weapons incident in the Damascus suburb of Ghouta. That incident was also exposed as a deliberate provocation staged by Turkish intelligence in league with Islamist “rebels” for the express purpose of provoking a US attack. The US participated directly in the destruction of Syria’s chemical stockpiles, and the OCPW certified that all of the country’s chemical weapons had been destroyed in January 2016. Mattis wants more militarism by the U.S. too. Trump is a hypocrite by claiming to support the children of Syria, but denying Syrian refugees from coming into America. In six years, roughly half of Syria's population, some 11 million people, has been forced to flee their homes to escape the violence--6 million are internally displaced, and 5 million are refugees. The death count in Syria since the war began is almost half a million people. Of those killed, 24,000 have been children. I don’t agree with imperialism in Syria, but Assad is not hero either. ISIS is wrong including the al-Qaeda forces there. Also, Assad is wrong to promote neoliberal policies, his violent repression of dissenters, etc. So, Syria must not be govern by U.S., Saudi, Gulf States-backed puppet leaders neither by Assad. They should be ruled by the working class and revolutionary Syrian people. The Syrian people must govern their own land in an independent fashion.

By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, Seattle grew in the high tech boom. In 1979, Bill Gates, Paul Allen (founders of Microsoft) moved their company from New Mexico to the suburbs of their native Seattle. By 1985, sales (of Microsoft) were over $140 million, by 1990, $1.18 billion, and by 1995, Microsoft was the world's most profitable corporation. Allen and Gates were billionaires, and literally thousands of their past and present employees were millionaires. Microsoft spawned a host of other companies in the Seattle area. Millionaire employees of Microsoft found their own companies. Allen left Microsoft and became a major investor in new companies. Seattle is home to many technological companies like InforSpace, RealNetworks, etc.  Quite unlike Boeing, Microsoft has served as a catalyst for the creation of a whole realm of industry. Microsoft has also taken a much more active hand than Boeing in public works in the area, donating software to many schools (including the University of Washington). Biotechnology and coffee sectors are readily found in Seattle too. The international coffee shop chain Starbucks originated from Seattle. The Seattle based Nordstrom today is a national brand. Paul Allen is a political person too. He started a voter initiative to build the Seattle Commons, which is a huge park in South Lake Union and the Cascade District. He even offered to put up his own money to endow a security force for the park. It was defeated in the polls. He is now a leader of the movement to redevelop the same areas as a biotech center.  He did get a football stadium for the Seattle Seahawks through a successful statewide ballot initiative, and founded the Experience Music Project (originally intended as a Jimi Hendrix museum) on the grounds of Seattle Center. Seattle’s bid for the world stage by hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999 didn’t played as planned. Many protests existed back then. There was a large anti-globalization movement (which opposed corporate exploitation, environmental degradation, and anti-labor oppression) that came into the streets of Seattle to oppose the WTO. Many protesters came in November 30, 1999. While many of those in the streets, most of those in the streets, were from out of town or even out of country. Much of the groundwork of Seattle hosting both the event and the protests against it can be attributed to local forces. In 2001, the central city was the site of violence in the Mardi Gras riot. Seattle along with other west coast cities experienced politically inspired confrontations and violence during the May Day marches in 2015. Today, the demographics of Seattle is similar to what it was during the 1960’s. Most of Seattle is white. There are many people who are African Americans and Asian-Americans. Progressives do live in Seattle. Suburbs have grown. Seattle’s economy is diverse and richer than decades ago. Great cultural activity is found in Seattle. Racism and economic inequality are serious problems in Seattle like in places worldwide. Boeing is the larger employer of workers. Yet, its new headquarters are in Chicago. Microsoft remains and now supplemented by Amazon; the high tech leaders have spawned many startups. Pioneer Square still retains some of the ambiance of Skid Road. Seattle is a strong, beautiful city.

By Timothy

Friday, April 21, 2017

Syracuse, N.Y., BLM rallies for justice

Lenin’s April Theses

Early History of the Haitian Revolution

There was great social stratification in Haiti before the Haitian Revolution. In 1789, Haiti produced 60% of the world’s coffee, and 40% of the world’s sugar (which was imported by the French and the British). It was the most profitable possession of the French empire. Saint-Domingue was also the wealthiest and most financially prosperous colony for the imperialists. The plantation owners were very brutal. In 1789, there were 40,000 white people in Haiti, there were 28,000 free black people and biracial people, and black slaves numbered in an estimated 425,000 people. Two thirds of the slaves were African born and they readily rebelled against tyranny. The death rate in the Caribbean exceeded the birth rate. So, many Africans were passing away via diseases, etc. in Haiti, so more numbers to work the plantations could exist.  The slave population declined at an annual rate of two to five percent, due to overwork, inadequate food and shelter, insufficient clothing and medical care, and an imbalance between the sexes, with more men than women. Some slaves were of a creole elite class of urban slaves and domestics, who worked as cooks, personal servants and artisans around the plantation house. This relatively privileged class was chiefly born in the Americas, while the under-class born in Africa labored hard, and more often than not, under abusive and brutal conditions. Among Saint Domingue’s 40,000 white colonials in 1789, European born French people monopolized administrative posts.  The sugar planters, the grands blancs, were chiefly minor aristocrats. Most returned to France as soon as possible, hoping to avoid the dreaded yellow fever, which regularly swept the colony. The lower-class whites, petits blancs, included artisans, shopkeepers, slave dealers, overseers, and day laborers. Around that time, colonial legislations, concerned with this growing and strengthening population, passed discriminatory laws that visibly differentiated these freedmen by dictating their clothing and where they could live. These laws also barred them from occupying many public offices. Many of these freedmen were also artisans and overseers, or domestic servants in the plantation houses. Le Cap Français, a northern port, had a large population of freed slaves, and these men would later become important leaders in the 1791 slave rebellion and later revolution. There were racial conflicts among whites, free people of color, and enslaved black people.

There were also regional rivalries among the North, South, and the West of Haiti. There were class and racial tensions. Regionals tensions grew. The North was the center of shipping and trading. So, it had the largest French elite population. The Plaine du Nord on the northern shore of Saint-Domingue was the most fertile area with the largest sugar plantation. It was economically productive. Most of the colony’s trade went through these ports. The largest and busiest port was Le Cap Francais (or modern day Le Cap Haitien) or the capital of French Saint-Domingue until 1751. By 1751, Port-au-Prince was the capital. In the northern area, enslaved Africans lived in large groups of workers in relative isolation, separated from the rest of the colony by the high mountain range known as the Massif du Nord. These slaves would join with urban slaves from LeCap to lead the 1791 rebellion. It was started in the Northern region.  This area was the seat of power of the grands blancs, the rich white colonists who wanted greater autonomy for the colony, especially economically. The Western Province grew after the capital was moved to Port-au-Prince in 1751. The region became more and wealthier in the second half of the 18th century when irrigation projects allowed significant sugar plantation growth. The Southern Province lagged in population and wealth because it was geographically separated from the rest of the colony. However, this isolation allowed freed slaves to find profit in trade with British Jamaica, and they gained power and wealth here. In addition to these interregional tensions, there were conflicts between proponents of independence, those loyal to France, allies of Spain, and allies of Great Britain – who coveted control of the valuable colony.

The French Revolution changed the landscape of the history of Haiti. In France, the National Assembly made radical changes in French laws. On August 26, 1789, French people published the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It declared all men free and equal. The French Revolution existed during the time of the Haitian Revolution. Many wealthy whites viewed the French Revolution as an opportunity to gain independence from France. They wanted elite plantation owners to take control of the island and create trade regulations that would further their own wealth and power. Many twists and turns existed during the French Revolution in France. Many complex events occurred in Saint-Domingue. So, many various classes and parties changed their alignments numerous times. The Haitian Revolution soon was a test of the ideology of the French Revolution. It radicalized the slavery question and forced French leaders to recognize the full meaning of their revolution. The African population in the island began to heart the agitation for independence by the rich European planters (the grands blancs) who had resented France’s limitations on the island’s foreign trade. The Africans mostly allied with the royalists and the British, as they understood that if Saint-Domingue's independence were to be led by white slave owners, it would probably mean even harsher treatment and increased injustice for the African population. The plantation owners would be free to operate slavery as they pleased without the existing minimal accountability to their French peers.  Saint-Domingue’s free people of color (like Julien Raimond) had been actively appealing to France for civil equality with whites since the 1780’s. Raimond used the French Revolution to make this the major colonial issue before the National Assembly of France. In October 1790, Vincent Ogé, another wealthy free man of color from the colony, returned home from Paris, where he had been working with Raimond. Convinced that a law passed by the French Constituent Assembly gave full civil rights to wealthy men of color, Ogé demanded the right to vote. When the colonial governor refused, Ogé led a brief insurgency in the area around Cap Français. He and an army of around three hundred free blacks fought to end racial discrimination in the area. He was captured in early 1791, and brutally executed by being "broken on the wheel" before being beheaded. Ogé was not fighting against slavery, but his treatment was cited by later slave rebels as one of the factors in their decision to rise up in August 1791 and resist treaties with the colonists. The conflict up to this point was between factions of whites, and between whites and free blacks. Enslaved blacks watched from the sidelines. Leading 18th-century French writer Count Mirabeau had once said the Saint-Domingue whites "slept at the foot of Vesuvius", an indication of the grave threat they faced should the majority of slaves launch a sustained major uprising.

There are similarities between the Haitian Revolution and the French Revolution. The Haitian Revolution started from below among the majority of the population. Many supporters of the Haitian revolution were slaves and freed Africans who were treated unequally by society and unjust laws. Both revolutions involved massive violence since the oppressors refused to willingly give liberation to people. The Reign of Terror, during the French Revolution, was bloody. Many people in that time were killed via the guillotine and other machines. The Reign of Terror caused 18,000 to 40,000 to die. In the Caribbean, total casualties were about 162,000 people during the Haitian Revolution. Violence in Haiti was executed by military excursions, riots, the killing of people, and guerilla warfare. The Haitian Revolution didn’t wait on the revolution in France. Haitians fought for their own freedom. The Enlightenment ideals and the initiation of the French Revolution inspired many in the Haitian Revolution. Yet, the people of Haiti completed the most successful and comprehensive slave rebellion via their own black power. Just as the French were successful in transforming their society, so were the Haitians. On April 4, 1792, The French National Assembly granted freedom to slaves in Haiti and the revolution culminated in 1804; Haiti was an independent nation solely of freed peoples. The activities of the revolutions sparked change across the world. France’s transformation was most influential in Europe, and Haiti’s influence spanned across every location that continued to practice slavery. John E. Baur honors Haiti as home of the most influential Revolution in history.

The influence of Enlightenment thought existed in the Caribbean region. The French writer Guillaume Raynal attacked slavery in his history of European colonization. Raynal’s Enlightenment philosophy went deeper than a prediction and reflected many French Enlightenment philosophies including those of Rousseau and Diderot, even though it was written thirteen years before the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.” The declaration, in contrast, highlighted freedom and liberty but still allowed slaves to be characterized as property. Toussaint Louverture was a key man who was influenced by the Enlightenment. He was a leader in the Haitian Revolution.  Louverture attempted to bridge this divide between the popular masses and the enlightened few. Louverture was familiar with Enlightenment ideas within the context of European imperialism. He attempted to strike a balance between Western Enlightenment thought as a necessary means of winning liberation, and not propagating the notion that it was morally superior to the experiences and knowledge of people of color on Saint Domingue. As an extension of himself and his enlightenment education, Louverture wrote a Constitution for a new society in Saint-Domingue that abolished slavery. The existence of slavery in society was an incongruity that had been left unaddressed by numerous European scholars. Louverture took on this inconsistency directly in his constitution. In addition, Louverture exhibited a connection to Enlightenment scholars through the style, language and accent of this text. Like Louverture, Jean-Baptiste Belley was also an active participant in the colony’s insurrection. Belley was a native of Senegal and a former slave from Saint-Domingue. He lived to 1805 and was a member of the National Convention and the Council of Five Hundred of France.

By Timothy



Bill O'Reilly Accuser Perquita Burgess Speaks Out | The View

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Laura Fitzpatrick

Kru People: The Africans Who Vigilantly Refused to Be Captured into Slavery

Black Agenda Report News

US vice president warns North Korea “the sword is ready”

Where will France end up after the election?


ICE grabs another victim in Maine

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Astronaut Jeanette J. Epps: Sisters Empowering Sisters

Bill O'Reilly is out of FOX News

Another victim of sexual harassment comes forward against the extremist Bill O'Reilly.

Haitian Revolution and other Information.

Before the Haitian Revolution, black people in Haiti were suffering tons of injustices. European imperialists demanded sugar. Plantation owners in Haiti traded sugar for European and North American manufactured goods. Back then, Haiti was called Saint Domingue by the French. Haiti had extensive coffee, cocoa, and indigo plantations. Yet, these were less profitable than wealthy sugar plantations. By the 1730’s, French engineers created complex irrigation system to grow sugarcane production. By the 1740’s, Saint-Domingue together with Jamaica, had become the main supplier of the world’s sugar. More African slaves were used to produce sugar and slaves were heavily brutalized in the Haitian colonial plantation economy. Haiti was the most profitable French colony in the world. There was an average of 600 ships engaged every year in shipping products from Saint-Domingue to Bordeaux (in France). The value of Saint-Domingue’s goods almost equal in value to all of the products shipped from the British 13 colonies to Great Britain. France depended heavily on the crops of coffee, indigo, and sugar from Saint Domingue. 1 million people lived in Haiti back then and 25 million people lived in the Kingdom of France in 1789. Many people died of malaria and yellow fever. The French in 1787 imported 38,000 slaves to all of their Caribbean colonies. The death rate from yellow fever was such that at least 50% of the slaves imported from Africa died within a year of arriving, and as such the slave owners preferred to work theslaves as hard as possible while providing with them with the barest minimum of food and shelter, calculating that it was better to get the most work out of their slaves with lowest possible expense possible since they were probably going to die of yellow fever anyway. Many slaves did polyandry (or one woman married to many men) because the death rate of slaves were so high. Slaves were denied human rights. Slave owners regularly raped black women in Haiti back then. That was evil and wrong. Africans outnumbered white planters more than ten to one. The planters feared slave rebellion.

The French slave owners were very cruel against slaves. White slave owners used physical violence. Slaves were whipped for resisting. Some were burned and castrated. They did these things to warn other slaves too.  Louis XIV, the French King, passed the Code Noir in 1685 in an attempt to regulate such violence and the treatment of the enslaved person in general in the colony, but slave-owners openly and consistently broke the code, and local legislation reversed parts of it throughout the 18th century. Coir Noir is a disgrace since slavery should be banned outright not regulated. In 1758, white landowners passed legislation to restrict the rights of other people until a rigid caste system was instituted. Most historians defined the caste system into 3 groups. One was the white colonists (blancs). This group was subdivided into plantation owners and a lower class of whites, who were overseers or day laborers. The second group was the free black people (usually biracial or multiracial. They were the gens de couleur libres, free people of color). The gens de couleur had education experience, were literate, and many were in the army. Some were even administrators on plantations. Many of them were children of white planters and enslaved mothers (so, these mothers were raped) while others had purchased their freedom from slave owners (from the sale of their own produce or artistic works). Many of them had artisan training. Some of them inherited freedom or property from their fathers. Some gens de couleur even operated their own plantations and were slave owners. The third group was the largest group in Haiti. They were the mostly black African born slaves.

A high rate of mortality among them meant that planters continually had to import new slaves. This kept their culture (of the Africans) more African and separate from other people on the island. Many plantations had large concentrations of slaves from a particular region of Africa, and it was therefore somewhat easier for these groups to maintain elements of their culture, religion, and language. This also separated new slaves from Africa from creoles (slaves born in the colony), who already had kin networks and often had more prestigious roles on plantations and more opportunities for emancipation. Most slaves spoke a patois of the French language known as Creole, which was also used by native biracial people and whites for communication with the workers. The majority of the slaves were Yoruba from what is now modern Nigeria, Fon from what is now Benin and from the Kingdom of Kongo in what now modern northern Angola and the western Congo. The Kongolese at 40% were the largest of the African ethnic groups represented amongst the slaves. The slaves developed their own religion, a synesthetic mixture of Roman Catholicism and West African religions known as Vodou, usually called voodoo in English, which provided the slaves with their own belief system that implicitly rejected their status as slaves. There were conflicts violently between white colonists and black slaves. There was hatred around, because black people were very much brutally oppressed by criminals.   The French historian Paul Fregosi wrote: "Whites, mulattos and blacks loathed each other. The poor whites couldn't stand the rich whites, the rich whites despised the poor whites, the middle class whites were jealous of the aristocratic whites, the whites born in France looked down upon the locally born whites, mulattoes envied the whites, despised the blacks and were despised by the whites; free Negroes brutalized those who were still slaves, Haitian born blacks regarded those from Africa as savages. Everyone-quite rightly-lived in terror of everyone else...Haiti was hell, but Haiti was rich." To correct Paul, not every Haitian born black person regarded those from Africa as savages. Many Africans worked together to fight tyranny.

So, I want to make that perfectly clear. Africans are the first humans on this Earth. African peoples are strong and Africa is Beautiful as Black is Beautiful. Many of these conflicts involved slaves who had escaped the plantations. Many runaway slaves—called Maroons—hid on the margins of large plantations, living off the land and what they could get from their former slave owners. Others fled to towns, to blend in with urban slaves and freed slaves who often concentrated in those areas. If caught, these runaway slaves would be severely and violently punished. However, some brutal owners tolerated petit marronages, or short-term absences from plantations. Larger groups of runaway slaves lived in the woods away from control. They often used violent raids on the island’s sugar and coffee plantation. There were thousands of these groups. One maroon leader who was effect was the charismatic François Mackandal, who succeeded in unifying the black resistance. A Haitian Vodou priest, Mackandal inspired his people by drawing on African traditions and religions. He united the maroon bands and also established a network of secret organizations among plantation slaves, leading a rebellion from 1751 through 1757. Although Mackandal was captured by the French and burned at the stake in 1758, large armed maroon bands persisted in raids and harassment after his death.

Virginia is home to a lot of civil rights history. I was born and raised in Virginia. I'm a black Southerner and my parents experienced Jim Crow oppression for real. So, I know a lot of the Civil War history and the history of the civil rights movement in America. One civil rights hero from Virginia was Dorothy Hamm. Dorothy Hamm was a civil rights and community activist in Arlington and Caroline Counties. Those areas are in Northern Virginia. She and her son, Edward Leslie Hamm Jr., joined a civil action case in 1956 that sought to end segregation in Arlington schools. She and her husband challenged the evil poll tax too back during the 1960's. Hamm was politically active, serving as delegate to Arlington County and state conventions in 1964. She worked with CORE and she was part of the Poor People's Campaign in 1968. The Poor People's Campaign was about demanding that the federal government address poverty in American society. Her legacy is etched in stone as part of the long human rights movement for social change. There is a director (John Ridley) who intentionally erased the role of black women in the Black freedom struggle in the UK. I have no respect for that. Also, it is also important to show the truth about the many black women and black men involved in the UK black freedom struggle too. This is a perfect time to show that information. In the near future, I'm going to research more history about the UK and I'm going to show more information about this subject. Olive Morris was a black woman who worked in the Black Power movement and she defended housing rights (in the UK). Claudia Jones in the 1950’s and in the 1960’s fought for the human rights of black people. She was a friend of Paul Robeson and she knew Dr. King. Claudia Jones was ahead of her time and Malcolm X praised her too. Claudia Jones believed in racial justice, economic justice, and gender equality. Beverley Brown and Janet Davis worked in Black Power and Black Panther organizations in the UK. Jacqueline Nassy Brown, Tanisha Ford and Kennetta Perry are Black women scholars who lived in that time period too. Althea Jones Lecointe and Barbara Beese were black women leaders back then too. So, we will always honor black women.

By Timothy

Trump pushes reactionary “Buy American, Hire American” plan

Monday, April 17, 2017

A return to repression in Durban: activist shot in the back

Einstein on capitalism

Media, Clinton supporters offer frenzied support for Syria intervention, refuse to learn from Libyan disaster

Historical Notes

World War one lasted from 1914 to 1918. Tons of African Americans had crucial roles in the war militarily, socially, and economically. Like most Americans, most African Americans initially opposed American military involvement in World War One. WWI was a war among imperial powers over the resources of the Earth. Colonial forces forced black people and other people of color (from other nations) in the frontlines of battles in numerous circumstances. Later, after the Lusitania was hit by a German U-Boat, America soon was involved in WWI. African Americans were divided. Some opposed the war out of moral, anti-war reasons. Some opposed the war because it was hypocritical to fight for democracy overseas when black people were denied fundamental human rights at home. Many black Americans supported the war for democratic reasons. We know that Woodrow Wilson (who was President during WWI) was a racist and never would desire true democracy to spread for all ethnicities on Earth. Also, Wilson hypocritically passed anti-civil liberty laws like the 1917 Espionage Act and the 1918 Sedition Act, which suppressed dissent. A. Philip Randolph and Chandler (who were editors of the socialist newspaper “The Messenger”) opposed the war. They wanted African Americans to resist military service. Both men were monitored by the federal government. Ironically, WEB DuBois supported the war as a way for black people to gain freedoms denied in America. About 370,000 black men were inducted in the Army. Black soldiers were forced to serve in many menial jobs and they faced racism and discrimination. So, black people were fighting overseas and home against discrimination and injustice. Emmett J. Scott was a private secretary to Booker T. Washington. He was the Special Assistant to Secretary of War Newton Baker during World War I in order to oversee the recruitment, training, and morale of the African American soldiers. Only a small percentage of black Americans were in combat. Yet, many African Americans joined the French military forces in combat. African Americans introduced the French to jazz, blues, and other cultural representations. Many black people said that the French were less prejudice against them than white Americans. Units were segregated. Over 2 million black men were registered for the draft. One of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. 171 members of the 369th were awarded the Legion of Merit. On February 18, 1919, the 3,000 veterans of the 369th Infantry were in a parade on Fifth Avenue at 23rd Street to 145th and Lenox (in NYC). The French Army awarded them the prestigious Croix de Guerre. In their ranks was one of the Great War’s greatest heroes, Pvt. Henry Johnson of Albany, N.Y., who, though riding in a car for the wounded, was so moved by the outpouring he stood up waving the bouquet of flowers he’d been handed during the February parade. It would take another 77 years for Johnson to receive an official Purple Heart from his own government.

Eugene Bullard was one of the greatest black soldiers in WWI. He was the first African American military pilot. He flew for France. He was born in Columbus, Georgia. His ancestors came from Haiti from the days of the Haitian Revolution. World War I began in August 1914, and on October 19, 1914, Bullard enlisted and was assigned to the third Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion. He was awarded by the French. He stood up for civil rights and he was beaten by racists (including the police) in the Peekskill Riots. Bullard wanted to defend Paul Robeson’s right to perform in a benefit concert for the Civil Rights Congress. Black soldiers on August 23, 1917 resisted racism and many of these soldiers were kicked out of the military in Houston. The military created two combat divisions for African Americans. One, the 92nd Division, was composed of draftees and officers. The second, the 93rd Division, was made up of mostly National Guard units from New York, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Cleveland, and Massachusetts. The army, however, assigned the vast majority of soldiers to service units, reflecting a racist belief that black men were more suited for manual labor than combat duty. From May 1918 to November 1918, the 371st and 372nd African American Regiments were integrated under the 157th Red Hand Division commanded by the French General Mariano Goybet. They earned glory in the decisive final offensive in Champagne region of France. The two Regiments were decorated by the French Croix de Guerre for their gallantry in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Corporal Freddie Stowers of the 371st Infantry Regiment was posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor—the only African American to be so honored for actions in World War I. During action in France, Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being wounded twice. Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued the fight on a German machine gun nest near Bussy farm in Champagne, and eventually defeated the German troops. Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his death, but according to the Army, the nomination was misplaced. Many believed the recommendation had been intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In 1990, under pressure from Congress, the Defense Department launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, 1991 – 73 years after he was killed in action — Stowers' two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H. W. Bush at the White House. After WWI, DuBois and others promoted Pan-African Congresses to advance freedom for black people worldwide. They wanted independence for colonized areas, but this would be a long process. Black women sacrificed in World War I as well. The National Association of Cored Women (NACW) and various clubs supported black troops. Many black women were nurses and met the needs of black soldiers. Many black women worked outside of the home in various jobs. They fought for greater pay and equitable working conditions. Black women fought against lynching and many were involved in strikes for better treatment (like in Mobile, Alabama).

Seattle grew fast in the 19th century. By July 14, 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway said that they chose the village of Tacoma over Seattle as the Western terminus of their transcontinental railroad. The railroad barons wanted to be take advantage of buying up land around the terminus cheaply not bringing the railroad into a more established Pacific port town. Seattle tried to create a railroad of its own. The Great Northern Railway came about in 1884 in Seattle. This caused Seattle to compete for freight. It would be until 1906 before Seattle had a major rail passenger terminal. Back then, problems existed in Seattle. It had newspapers and telephones. Yet, many people were lynched with the lynch law. Schools struggled and indoor plumbing was rare. That is why changes came about. Union organizing arrived first in the form of a skilled craft union. In 1882, Seattle printers formed the Seattle Typographical Union Local 202. Dockworkers followed in 1886, cigar makers in 1887, tailors in 1889, and both brewers and musicians in 1890. Even the newsboys unionized in 1892, followed by more organizing, mostly of craft unions. There was also anti-Chinese vigilantism or violent racism against Chinese people in Seattle.  In 1883, Chinese laborers played a key role in the first effort at digging the Montlake Cut to connect Lake Union's Portage Bay to Lake Washington's Union Bay. In 1885-1886, whites—sometimes in combination with some Native Americans—complaining of overly cheap labor competition, drove the Chinese settlers from Seattle, Tacoma, and other Northwest cities. Washington Territory back then was one of the first places of America to briefly allow women’s suffrage (or giving women the right to vote). Women had a strong history in early Seattle. The first bathtub with plumbing was in 1870. In the 1880's, Seattle got its first streetcar and cable car, ferry service, a YMCA gymnasium, and the exclusive Rainier Club. Seattle passed an ordinance requiring attached sewer lines for all new residences. It also began to develop a road system. The relative fortunes of Seattle and Tacoma clearly show the nature of Seattle's growth. Though both Seattle and Tacoma grew at a rapid rate from 1880 to 1890, based on the strength of their timber industries, Seattle's growth as an exporter of services and manufactured goods continued for another two decades, while Tacoma's growth dropped almost to zero. The reason for this lies in Tacoma's nature as a company town and Seattle's successful avoidance of that condition. The great fire came into Seattle in June 6, 1889. It was started by a glue pot. It burned 29 city blocks (almost all of them were filled with wooden buildings and about 10 brick buildings were burned too). It destroyed almost the entire business district. All railroad terminals and all but four of the wharves were burned. Major fires like this were common in Washington that summer: the center of Ellensburg was destroyed by fire on July 4 and downtown Spokane burned on August 4. Thanks in part to credit arranged by Jacob Furth, Seattle rebuilt from the ashes with astounding rapidity. A new zoning code resulted in a downtown of brick and stone buildings, rather than wood. In the single year after the fire, the city grew from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants, largely because of the enormous number of construction jobs suddenly created.  Still, south of Yesler Way, the open city atmosphere remained. The greatest boom period for Seattle occurred during the Klondike gold rush. Seattle, as well as the rest of the nation, was suffering from the economic panic of 1893, and to a lesser extent, the panic of 1896. Gold was discovered in August 1896 in the Klondike region of Canada. Almost one year later, on July 17, 1897, the steamer Portland arrived at Schwabacher's Wharf in Seattle. A publicity campaign engineered largely by Erastus Brainerd told the world of the Portland's "ton of gold," started the Klondike gold rush, and established Seattle as its supply center and the jumping-off point for transportation to and from Alaska and the gold fields of the Yukon. The rush ended the depression overnight for Seattle. The miners mined the gold. Seattle mined the miners

The leader of the antilynching movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a black woman named Ida B. Wells. She wrote newspapers, was involved in protests, and used other forms of activism to fight lynching. In her May 21, 1892 editorial, she defended the dignity of black people and exposed racism. Her best known work called “Southern Horrors” made known to the world that black people were being killed, lynched, and abused by racist terrorists. She also advocated self-defense. She wrote that: “…The lesson this teaches…which every Afro-American should ponder well, is that a Winchester rifle should have a place of honor in every black home and it should be used for that protection which the law refuses to give…” WEB DuBois, Walter White, and other early NAACP members fought against lynching. According to the NAACP, from 1889-1918, about 2,522 black men, women, and children were lynched or violently executed by racist mobs. Lynchers slandered black people in order to promote the system of white supremacy. Many of the dead bodies from lynching were displayed in public. Many non-black people fought against lynching, but the anti-lynching movement in America was headed by black Americans (especially black women). The Southeastern Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs adopted a 1921 statement condemning lynching as a threat in society. The ASWPL or the Southern women for the Prevention of lynching existed in November of 1930. The NAACP fought to get anti-lynching legislation passed in Congress like the Dyer bill during the 1920’s and the Wagner-Costigan bill in 1933. Both bills wanted lynching to be a federal crime. These bills failed in part because of southern segregationist Democrats who opposed such legislation. Organizations fought hard (like Young Women’s Christian Association, Women’s Christian Missionary Society including Eleanor Roosevelt) and lynching declined by the 1940’s, but racism persists to this very day.

After the Great Migration of 1910, more black people lived in Northern cities. The religious landscape of the black American community evolved. Most black Americans back then and today are Christians, but alternative religious movements existed too. Black Hebrew Israelites grew from the late 19th century. Many of them follow Judaism and others follow a Messianic Judaism (in viewing Jesus Christ as the Messiah). One of the first groups of Black Hebrews, the Church of God and Saints of Christ, was founded in 1896 in Kansas, but it retained elements of a messianic connection to Jesus. They believe that black people are descendants from the ancient Israelites and that we must follow the commandments of Moses. After World War I, for example, Wentworth Arthur Matthew, an immigrant from Saint Kitts, founded a Black Hebrew congregation in Harlem, claiming descent from the ancient Israelites. He called it the Commandment Keepers of the Living God. He followed a form of Judaism. Black Israelites are diverse. Some are more tolerable and others are outrageous, misogynistic, and xenophobic. The Moorish Science Temple existed from Noble Drew Ali. This group believed that African Americans are descendants of the Moors of Northwest Africa and Islamic by faith. The Moors teach about racial pride, historical education, and spirituality. They have grown since the 1920’s.  In religious texts, adherents refer to themselves racially as "Asiatics," as the Middle East is also western Asia. Adherents of this movement are known as Moorish-American Moslems and are called "Moorish Scientists" in some circles. One cousin of the Moorish Science Temple is the Nation of Islam. The Nation of Islam was created by Wallace Fard Muhammad in the 1930’s. It was based originally in Detroit by July 4, 1930. The Nation of Islam believes in using action to build the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans and black people in general. The Nation of Islam is globally and it has been controversial since its inception. Elijah Muhammad is its famous leader. Malcolm X was once part of the NOI until he left it in 1964 to form the MMI & OAAU. Its membership (of the NOI) is estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000 people today.  

From 1896 to 1954, massive civil rights organizations existed in America. The NAACP back then was the most powerful black civil rights organization numerically. It had local leaders, religious leaders, professionals, business people, working class people, etc. in its ranks. They worked against the lynching of black people. They also protested anti-black race riots. They fought for voting rights and defended workers’ rights too. From 1940 to 1946, NAACP membership increased from 50,000 to 450,000 members. Communists were involved in civil rights. Most black people weren’t Communists since Communists embraced atheism and the stigma many people placed on Communists. Communists had many successes, but the problem was that many of them supported the Hitler-Stalin pact, which was wrong. This caused Communist support in America to decline because of that blunder (as Hitler broke promises and was a racist liar). With the McCarthyism era, the NAACP made the mistake of kicking out any black person who was a Communist even sincere Communists desiring social change. Paul Robeson was an overt, sincere Communist who believed in freedom and justice. He was an anti-imperialist like WEB DuBois. The NAACP's legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a litigation campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine established in the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). The NAACP was heavily involved in the courts to fight for change. The Regional Council of Negro Leadership was created in 1951 by T.R.M. Howard and their famous member was Medgar Evers. The RCNL wanted to end segregation and promote voting rights for black people. Many Jewish people and organizations were involved in the civil rights movement.  Many co-founders of the NAACP were Jewish. Jewish philanthropists supported the NAACP, civil rights groups, and schools for African Americans (like Julius Rosenwald. Rosenwald worked with Booker T. Washington in funding his Tuskegee University). Rosenwald also contributed to HBCUs such as Howard, Dillard and Fisk universities. The PBS television show From Swastika to Jim Crow discussed Jewish involvement in the civil rights movement. It recounted that Jewish scholars fleeing from or surviving the Holocaust of World War II came to teach at many Southern schools, where they reached out to black students. After World War II, the American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, and the ADL were active in promoting civil rights. Also, black women had a big role in the civil rights movement. Dorothy Height, Diane Nash, Fannie Lou Hamer, Septima Clark, Jo Ann Robison, and other black women fought for freedom courageously. The National Association of Colored Women Clubs (NACWC) is an American organization that was formed in July 1896 at the First Annual Convention of the National Federation of Afro-American Women in Washington, D.C. That the National Association of Colored Women was the most prominent organization formed during the African-American Woman Suffrage Movement was due chiefly to the efforts of Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. Both women were educated and had economically successful parents. Mary Church Terrell was a black woman who fought against segregation in Washington, D.C. Finally, on June 8, 1953, the court ruled that segregated eating places in Washington, DC, were unconstitutional.  After the age of 80, Terrell continued to participate in picket lines, protesting the segregation of restaurants and theaters In D.C. During her senior years, she also succeeded in persuading the local chapter of the American Association of University Women to admit black members. She lived to see the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, holding unconstitutional the racial segregation of public schools. The Urban League wanted economic opportunities for African Americans.

By Timothy

The roots of an attack in Stockholm

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Aisha Hinds on Playing Harriet Tubman in a Remarkable ‘Underground’ Episode

Culture and History in Friday

Some people are intrinsically born to play a role. Aisha Hinds was born to play Harriet Tubman on the show of Underground. Her message to her cast mates and to the audience (or people watching) in general makes home the accurate point that Harriet Tubman saved lives and has inspired generations past the 19th century in the cause of liberty. Liberty or freedom is beyond just an ideal. Freedom is part of courageous actions too which relates to our aspirations and the same goal (which is the total liberation of black people in the world). We are all in awe of Sister Aisha Hinds' amazing talent and her wisdom. One of the greatest heroes of our time is Sister Ernestine Shepherd. She is almost 80 years old. She is involved in helping her community in Baltimore, Maryland. She helps people constantly. She is involved in spiritual matters. She is constantly involved in fitness and she is a very nice black woman. Her goal has been to help others and she is fulfilling her goal constantly. She loves her husband and her children. Bless Sister Ernestine Shepherd. Yesterday was the Birthday of Brother Al Green. He is now 71 years old. He is a legendary singer and a person with great talent plus compassion for humanity. He was born in Forrest City, Arkansas. His parents were sharecroppers and he was part of musical group in the age of 10. He has developed great success. One of his great early songs was the song "Tired of Being Alone" from 1971. That single alone sold about 1 million copies. He was full of soul in his music. His album "Let's Stay Together" is another classic and he performed greatly. "I'm Still in Love with You" is a classic R&B record about romance. Later in his life, he has expressed gospel music, which he does to this very day. He is a spiritual man and there is nothing wrong with showing spirituality without apology. His talent is eternal and his legacy is totally etched as a man who not only loves music, but loves the people too. I wish Brother Al Green more blessings.

This is a very sad story of the recent passing of Associate Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman to be appointed to New York’s Court of Appeals, She was a Muslim and her body was found in a river. She was the first Muslim female judge in America. I send condolences to her family and friends. She had a love for the law in not only studying it and analyzing it. She had a love to enforce the law, so all citizens in New York State and throughout America would have their rights preserved. We want the truth to be known. Rest in Power Sister Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam. As for political news, Trump allowed the usage of the MOAB bomb in Afghanistan in claiming to target ISIS targets. Neil Gorsuch (who has ties to the agenda of big corporations) is the new Supreme Court Justice. Relations between America and Russia are in its lowest levels since the Cold War. The civil war in Syria continues to go on. The bigot Steve Bannon is still part of the White House team. War mongering continues and members from the political establishment among both major parties agree with this sick, evil militarism in the world. That is why we have to use discernment, gather facts, and act accordingly.

I want to show this good news. Sister Genet Lakew, a Howard University and New York University graduate, formed a scholarship to help black immigrants. She is part of the Urban League. The Urban League is an organization that helps people to get economic opportunities and it fights for social justice. Her scholarship is called the Mekonnen Family Scholarship. Genet Lakew is from an Ethiopian immigrant family. The xenophobes will hate this policy, so I love this policy. We are one people regardless of our nationality or place of origin. I want black people to succeed whether they are African Americans or black immigrants. Also, the xenophobes omit that non-American born black people had a crucial role in the black American freedom struggle. For example, Hubert Harrison, Cyril Briggs, and other Brothers and Sisters were not originally born in America, but they influenced the black American movement for freedom in immeasurable ways. Also, scholarships to help African Americans should exist as well. That's great as I am an African American. In the final analysis, black people globally have cultural differences (which is fine as diversity is beautiful), but we want the goal of freedom and justice for all black people regardless of nationality.
I do believe in pan-African unity.
Bless Sister Genet Lakew.

After the death of George Washington in 1799 (and after the unpopularity of then President John Adams who advanced the anti-civil liberty Sedition Act), there was the election of 1800. The Election was close and Thomas Jefferson won the 1800 election. Aaron Burr was the Vice President. Burr is famous for killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel. Jefferson was an anti-Federalist. He opposed the Sedition Acts. He was a Democratic Republican. He was a person filled with contradictions. He wrote the words of “all men are created equal,” but he owned slaves and he believed in the myth of black racial inferiority. The truth is that black people are human and made great contributions throughout human history. Jefferson cut taxes and cut resources from the navy and army. He promoted westward expansion too. His advocacy of farm ownership and gaining more lands for America contradicted his streamlining government message. He wanted this expansion to benefit white Americans primarily. We have to keep it real and that documents Jefferson's racism and hypocrisy. He wanted America to go into the Pacific. Back in 1801, the dictator Napoleon Bonaparte forced Spain to give him the Louisiana Territory including the city of New Orleans (which was a very strategic port city). By 1803, France gave Jefferson the Louisiana Purchase. It cost $15 million or about $0.04 per acre ($240 million in 2016 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre). Federalists opposed the expansion, but Jeffersonians hailed the opportunity to create millions of new farms to expand the domain of land-owning yeomen; the ownership would strengthen the ideal republican society, based on agriculture (not commerce), governed lightly. The supporters of the deal claimed that it promoted self-reliance and virtue, as well as form the political base for Jeffersonian Democracy.

This land was acquired without much discussion with the Native Americans who lived in that territory for centuries and thousands of years. Many people paid Native American money for lands to the east of the Mississippi and in parts of west outside of the Louisiana Purchase later on. Jefferson wanted exploration of these lands before the purchase. Thomas Jefferson, in 1804, sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory and beyond to the Pacific Ocean. These men received help from a Native American woman named Sacajawea (who was a Shoshone woman) and her husband. They traveled in the Missouri River. They came into Colorado and Oregon. Jefferson told Lewis and Clark to research the native tribes (including their morals, language, and culture), weather, soil, rivers, commercial trading, and animal and plant life. Lewis and Clark discovered new species. They found 15 mammals, 16 birds, 7 fish, and 7 reptiles. They met Black Moccasin (or a Minitari chef). They left St. Louis in 1803 and returned in 1806.  John Jacob Astor (who was a wealthy entrepreneur) expanded fur trading operations into the Pacific Northwest too. He made the American Fur Company to break up the Hudson’s Bay Company monopoly in the region. Astor was a multi-millionaire by 1834 with a strong fur trade enterprise.

By Timothy