Tuesday, February 28, 2017

More News







5 Strange Symptoms That Could Be Early Signs of Diabetes


Jewish cemetery vandalized in Philadelphia, bomb threats target community centers and schools


Trump proposes huge hike in military and police spending


How do we honor Chance Baker's life?


Monday, February 27, 2017

Regime Change: Donald Trump's War on the Constitution

Dozens of headstones vandalized at Philadelphia Jewish cemetery


Late February News

One of the greatest abolitionist, suffragist, poet, and author in American history was the black woman Frances Ellen Watkins Harper. She was born in Baltimore, Maryland in September 24, 1825. She worked her whole life to promote freedom and justice. She worked in the Underground Railroad to help people go into Canada. She was a great public speaker too and a political activist. He joined the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1853. She was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle, who was Rev. William Watkins, who was a civil rights activist. She was educated at his Academy for Negro Youth. She wrote great literature. She wrote Forest Leaves, published in 1845 when she was 20. Her second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (1854), was extremely popular. She wrote short stories and poetry. In 1859, her story of “The Two Offers” was published in the Anglo-African Magazine. She was the first black woman to publish a short story. In 1858, she refused to give up her seat or ride in the segregated section of a segregated trolley car in Philadelphia (which was almost 100 years before Rosa Parks). In 1866, Harper gave a moving speech before the National Women's Rights Convention, demanding equal rights for all, including Black women. During the Reconstruction Era, she worked in the South to review and report on living conditions of freedmen. She desired racial and sexual equality. She wanted the federal government to protect rights, and to promote the general welfare. She and Mary Church Terrell helped to create the National Association of Colored Women in 1894. She was elected vice President in 1897. Frances Watkins passed away on February 25, 1911. She was 85 years old. Rest in Power Sister Frances Ellen Watkins.

Today, we have seen the speech of Donald Trump in the CPAC convention in Maryland. The speakers promoted tax cuts for the wealthy, a massive military buildup, and economic nationalism (in defending America’s “cultural identity”). CPAC is the Conservative Action Committee. It is no secret that Steve Bannon has a strong influence in the Trump White House. Bannon is part of the alt right movement. Alt right is code name for white nationalism and the agenda of white supremacy. Trump’s regime is the first Presidency to have 3 generals and former generals serving in all three national security positions in his cabinet. We already spend a huge amount of money in the military, but Trump wants a bigger investment in the military. 54 cents out of every federal dollar available that's not already apportioned to something else goes to the military. That's the main reason we don't often have enough money for jobs and healthcare and education. It's because the money is going to the military. Trump’s far right diatribe in the Conservative Political Action Conference is truly filled with reactionary propaganda. He attacked the media and promoted “America First” themes. Bannon wants the “deconstruction of the administrative” state, which means the dismantling of social programs and government regulations (along with the expansion of police state measures and the creation of a nationalist trade war economic policy). Apparently following up on this threat, the White House took the unprecedented step later on Friday of barring major media organizations from a briefing held by Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Among the journalists who were prevented from attending the press “gaggle” in Spicer’s office were those from the New York Times, CNN, the BBC and the Los Angeles Times. Other establishment news outlets, as well as right-wing journalists from Breitbart News, the Washington Times and One America News Network, were allowed to attend. It should be no secret that Trump’s policies target immigrants, escalate war abroad, and harm democratic rights at home.

During the year years of basketball, college basketball was always extremely popular in America. The first known U.S. college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University. That team played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College’s game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893 in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania which Geneva won 3-0. The first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M (which later became a part of the University of Minnesota). Minnesota A&M won the game, which was played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3. The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is often credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team was organized by Amos Alonzo Stagg. He learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. The Chicago team won the game 15-12. Some sources said that the first “true” five on five intercollegiate match was game  between Yale and Penn, because the Iowa team, that played Chicago in 1896, was composed of University of Iowa students, but did not officially represent the University of Iowa – rather being organized through a YMCA. College basketball games spread to colleges nationwide by 1900. In 1897, the AAU (or the Amateur Athletic Union) has taken oversight of basketball activity from the YMCA. By April 1905, representatives of fifteen colleges separately took over control of the college game. They created the collegiate “Basket Ball Rule Committee.” The Committee was in turn absorbed into the predecessor of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (or NCAA) in 1909. The extremely popular NCAA’ Men’s Basketball Tournament was created in 1939. Basketball traveled quickly internationally. In 1909, the first international match was held in Saint Petersburg.  Mayak Saint Petersburg beat a YMCA American team. The first great European event was held in 1919 in Joinville-le-Pont, near Paris, during the Inter-Allied Games. United States, led by future Hall of Fame player Max Friedman, won against Italy and France, and then Italy beat France. Basketball soon became popular among French and Italians. The Italian team had a white shirt with the House of Savoy shield and the players were: Arrigo and Marco Muggiani, Baccarini, Giuseppe Sessa, Palestra, Pecollo and Bagnoli.

World basketball grew as well during the early 20th century. On June 18, 1932, a real international organization was created. It had tournaments and teams. Argentina, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania and Switzerland founded the International Basketball Federation (Fédération internationale de basketball amateur, FIBA) in Geneva. Its actions and work was crucial in causing the first inclusion of basketball in the Berlin Summer Olympic Games in 1936. The first Olympic title was won by the U.S. national team: Sam Balter, Ralph Bishop, Joe Fortenberry, Tex Gibbons, Francis Johnson, Carl Knowles, Frank Lubin, Art Mollner, Donald Piper, Jack Ragland, Willard Schmidt, Carl Shy, Duane Swanson, Bill Wheatley and the trainer James Needles. Canada was runner-up; the games were played on an outdoor clay court. The first World Championship was held in Argentina in 1950. The NBA was called the Basketball league at first in June 6, 1946. It was founded in New York City. The American Basketball Association or the ABA was created as an alternative to the NBA in 1967. This was when the NBA had a lot of popularity. The ABA offered an alternative ethos and game style as well as some changes in the rules. Julius Erving was the leading player in the league, and helped launch a modern style of play that emphasizes leaping and play above the rim. His playing strength helped legitimize the American Basketball Association. The league emphasized excitement and liveliness, be it in the color of the ball (red, white and blue), the manner of play, wild promotions, or the three-point shot. National recognition and earnings were low, leading the league to look for a way out of its problems. That is why the ABA soon merged with the NBA. The ABA was merged with the NBA in the summer of 1976. Its four most  successful franchises (the New York Nets, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and San Antonio Spurs) being incorporated into the older league.  The aggressive, loose style of play and the three-point shot were taken up by the NBA.

African Americans have a long history in the early years of basketball. The Smart Set Athletic Club of Brooklyn and the St. Christopher Club of New York City were established as the first fully organized independent all-black basketball teams in 1906. These teams were amateur. In 1907 the amateur, all-black Olympian Athletic League was formed in New York City consisting of the Smart Set Athletic Club, St. Christopher Club, Marathon Athletic Club, Alpha Physical Culture Club, and the Jersey City Colored YMCA. The first inter-city basketball game between two black teams was played in 1907 when the Smart Set Athletic Club of Brooklyn traveled to Washington, DC to play the Crescent Athletic Club. In 1908, Smart Set Athletic Club of Brooklyn, a member of the Olympian Athletic League was named the first Colored Basketball World's Champion. In 1910 Howard University’s first varsity basketball team started. In 1922 the Commonwealth Five, the first all-black professional team was founded. The New York Renaissance was founded in 1923. In 1939 the all-black New York Renaissance beat the all-white Oshkosh All-Stars in the World Pro Basketball Tournament. From the late 1920's the African American Harlem Globetrotters were a successful touring team, winning the WPBT in 1940. The all-white National Basketball League began to racially integrate in 1942 with 10 black players joining two teams, the Toledo Jim White Chevrolets, and the Chicago Studebakers. The NBA integrated in 1950–51 seasons, just two years after its founding, with three black players each achieving a separate milestone in that process. In the draft held immediately prior to that season, Chuck Cooper became the first black player drafted by an NBA team. Shortly after the draft, Nat Clifton became the first black player to sign an NBA contract. Finally, Earl Lloyd became the first black player to appear in an NBA game as his team started its season before either Cooper's or Clifton's. After the integration of the NBA, the Harlem Globetrotters started to focus on international touring and exhibition performances, including comic routines. These tours helped to popularize basketball internationally, and gave the Globetrotters the reputation as Basketball's goodwill ambassadors.

By Timothy

Black Heroes







Friday, February 24, 2017

W.E.B. DuBois Speaks! "What is Life?"

Jean Augustine: First Black woman elected to the Parliament of Canada


Daniel G. Hill: Committed to the quest for justice in Canada


A declaration of war on 11 million people








Another Hate Crime as 2 Indian Engineers Are Shot in Kansas


Fire at Florida mosque ruled arson


More News





Friday Information.

Yesterday was the birthday of the late Brother WEB DuBois. He was a genius and one of the greatest intellectual scholars of human history. He was a man who lived among 2 centuries, who lived to be almost 100 years old, and developed some of the greatest sociological analysis of African Americans in history. WEB DuBois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He not only wrote books about Reconstruction, lynching, and other events of history. He courageously came out in public to defend the rights of black Americans. He opposed racism and imperialism. He wanted Pan-African unity and advocated Africa to be free from imperialism, militarism, and exploitation. He always had socialist views when it was taboo for black Americans to publicly support socialism. WEB DuBois didn't care about the haters. He continued to live his life and he spoke in America to promote economic justice and social equality. He said and wrote that capitalism is a cause of racism and poverty. I heard of him speaking in Youtube too. For a time, he lived in Atlanta, Georgia. He was a peace activist and believed in nuclear disarmament (as nuclear weapons has been recklessly used in the world). WEB DuBois also spoke about Dr. King and called him a voice for nonviolent resistance. He was blacklisted , slandered, and disrespected by the powers that be (even the NAACP had members who rejected him because of his views), but he stood tall. He was working on his African Encyclopedia in Ghana when he passed away in 1963. He was 95 years old.
Rest in Power Brother WEB DuBois.

You know me. You know about I'm about to show what's real. She said similar comments months ago. Sage Steele wants black people to follow her views, but black people have the right to have dissent with her views on race. Sage Steele have similar views to other people of color who want to blame black people instead of confronting international white racism and economic oppression. They wouldn't dare say those words (that have mentioned about black people) to describe Jewish people, about Asian people, about Hispanic people, about white people, and about other groups of people. We (as black people) are the scapegoats of society and we are sick and tired of it. The truth is that racism can never be eliminated by wishing it away or claiming that every human on Earth is colorblind. Racism must be defeated by fighting against white racism and calling out discrimination. She disagreed with Colin Kaepernick when she falsely assumed that his actions disrespected every military veteran when the national anthem was created by a slave owning racist who didn't care about true racial equality. Therefore, Colin is courageous to stand up for his views. We have to use chess. Many people like Sage desire the world to fit their views instead of the world unapologetically standing up for social justice. All black people don't need to look in the mirror.

America to this very day refuses to look itself in the mirror on how it has mistreated black people. Slavery, Jim Crow, the mass incarceration state, peonage, etc. are crimes against humanity and the far right people of color will never lecture white racists on that history. We, who are black people, are never responsible for the massive slander against Michelle Obama. We are not responsible for Bloody Sunday. We are not responsible for the election of Trump as the majority of white people voted him in office. We are not collectively responsible for the epidemic of police terrorism in our communities. I wanted to mention a whole lot of words. Sage Steele shouldn't be called out of her name, but she should put respect on black folks' name straight up. We are black people and we don't play that. Our response to her is that if you want to disrespect us, we won't support you. People are tired of trying to patronize black people and lecture black people on what we ought to do. We know what we need to do and we shouldn't be scapegoated for every evil in the world period. All African Americans are not hypocritical. Many of us have called out white racism and black self hated. We have called out those who promote discrimination and have shown bigotry regardless of skin color. So, Sage Steele is wrong on so many levels.

There has been many executive orders in dealing with immigration from the Trump regime. These orders are not only draconian. They outright harm the human rights of undocumented workers. His policies have nothing to do with promoting jobs, but it can ruin jobs as immigrants make a huge part of the economy. These policies divide workers based on nationality when the real origin of the problem of economics in American society originated from the policies of the capitalist elites. The Trump regime wants the deportation of millions of human beings and he called the operation as a "military" operation. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Homeland Security Secretary Gen. John Kelly in Mexico City alongside their Mexican counterparts in what was billed as an attempt to strengthen relations between the two countries following a series of blatant provocations over Trump’s proposed border wall, attacks on immigrants, threats to impose tariffs and suggestion that US troops could be sent into Mexico to wage the so-called drug war. The department of Homeland Security memo has talked about crackdowns, 100,000 National Guard troops to retrieve people, and proposed ways to organize other regressive policies. Now, many people are trying to go into Canada as refugees and migrant workers.

Also, it is important to recognize the truth that beauty is diverse. Beuaty is found in many hues and sizes. Carmelita Jeter, Jill Scott, Toccara Jones, Anansa Sims, and other women are beautiful. When we treat our neighbors as ourselves and stand up for what is right, then blessings overflow. Today, many media organizations were excluded from a press briefing. CNN, Portifico, Buzzfield, and other organizations were excluded from one press briefing. This is blatantly morally wrong since even media that you disagree with should be allowed to cover any administration. This is an unprecedented action and it represents the authoritarian, regressive, and reactionary regime of Trump. Trump is the same male who slandered the Central Park Five, said disgusting remarks about women, and has lied continuously (he lied about Sweden and about crime rates in America). The freedom of the press is a constitutional right and a free press is democratic. I do send great admiration and respect to the fitness experts in the world too. They have shown advice to people who love exercise. They have inspired tons of people worldwide with your words, pictures, motivational stories, and positive actions. They have shown the truth that people in the fitness world outline humbleness, have great humility, and enact the necessary strength to benefit the world. The people that I'm talking about know who they are. They are Tennessee, California, London, Texas, and in other places throughout the world.

By Timothy

The War Against Black Male/Black Female Relationships – Part 1


Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Black Agenda Report News (involving Malcolm X, etc.)













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Malcolm X's Words


Cultural and Historical Information

Yesterday was the 52nd anniversary of the evil assassination of Brother Malcolm X. Malcolm X was a revolutionary. He not only spoke truth to power. He also was a man who transformed his thinking and admitted to it via humility and strength. He loved Harlem and spoke in Harlem. Also, he promoted his message of internationalism, pan-African unity, and human liberation in Africa, and throughout the world. He debated people as he loved debate. Malcolm X was once a member of the Nation of Islam. He left in 1964 and wanted more political action to help the black community. He formed the OAAU in order for African Americans to get economic and political power. He allied with African leaders overseas in order for the UN to denounce the United States for its crimes against black Americans. Malcolm X promoted self defense as any human being has the right to live and the right to defend their communities via any means necessary. He opposed the Vietnam War and any form of imperialism. He defended the legacy of Patrice Lumumba and he loved black women. His wife was a strong black woman and he defended the human rights of people globally. Malcolm X loved his wife and his children. He not only spoke out. He was involved in promoting better education in New York City. He came into Selma to promote voting rights for black people. He believed in Blackness and he loved his Blackness fully. He opposed racism and criticized capitalism in 1965. Also, Malcolm X taught us about pan-African unity. That means that Afro-British people, Africans, African Americans, Afro-French, etc. are one. We certainly need more unity among the African Diaspora internationally. Malcolm X was an inspiration not only for some people. He inspired a wide spectrum of human beings who cherish militancy and social justice.
Rest in Power Brother Malcolm X.

One of the unsung black heroes was a black woman named Belinda Royall. She was born in ca. 1712 in Ghana, Africa. She was kidnapped near her home near the Volta River when she was 12 years old. This region was home to the Ewe speaking and Akan peoples. She wrote about her abduction in her 1783 petition. She came into Massachusetts and she was forced into the household of Isaac Royall. Isaac was a Tory, so he flew to Nova Scotia when the Revolutionary War started. Belinda was let go, so she was free. She was 63 in that time. She petitioned the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on 1783 for reparations. She talked about her pleasant experience in Ghana with her family including her injurious, torturous experience in America as a slave for decades. Her arguments caused the General Court to award her an annual pension of 15 pounds and 12 shillings. This was a victory for reparations and this has inspired the reparations movement in our generation. Her story shows the courage of a black woman and it showed the truth that the viciousness of slavery existed in the North (as Boston was the leading northern commercial port in the Triangular Trade. The Triangular Trade was about how African slaves were kidnapped from Africa and taken to the West Indies or Caribbean. Later, sugar was exported from the West Indies to be sent into the Northeast. From there, rum and other goods were exported to Europe and then Europe came to exploit Africa again. The trading pattern looked like an inverted triangle on a map) and the South. Slavery would be abolished in Massachusetts by 1783. Belinda’s petition exposed the inhumanity and immorality of slavery. Her petition was published in the May 29, 1783 Massachusetts Sun. She won a great victory. Belinda continued to live her life. She is not here anymore, but her memory is remembered by us forever. Rest in Power Sister Belinda Royall.

This news show how far right extremists deserve no respect. They deserve our opposition and our dissent. Milo Yiannopoulos is a coward and a racist who slandered Leslie Jones. He also is known to make many evil, ridiculous remarks. We know that racism and anti-Semitism are repugnant. There are the recent anti-Semitic attacks in the St. Louis area where locations were vandalized by cowards. There have been bomb threats against Jewish locations nationwide and that's wrong. The Chesed Shel Emeth Cemetery was attacked by cowards. So, when Islamophobia exists, we condemn it. When anti-Semitism comes about, we condemn that too. Hate crimes and bigotry will never prevail in the end. We will fight for the liberation of humanity and we definitely believe in the liberation of black people as I am a black person. Milo supported Breitbart (until he recently resigned over his sick remarks) and he believes in the lie that progressives collectively abhor free speech. We don't abhor free speech. We abhor bigotry, scapegoating, and pedophilia. Pedophilia is evil. He is a total disgrace. He wants to ban any Muslim from coming into America and Europe. He being a supporter of Trump is not shocking. Many haters of social justice and real justice ally with Trump. Milo is the same evil person who called rape culture a "fantasy" and he is part of the alt right movement. Like those of the alt right, he hates feminism, but doesn't know its meaning at all. Men and women deserve equal human rights period. He is the enemy of black people, of Muslims, of women, and of anyone who cherishes equality and social justice.

Days ago was the Birthday of Brother Sidney Poitier. He is now 90 years old. He was born in Miami, Florida and was raised in the Bahamas as his relatives are from the Bahamas. He is one of the greatest actors of all time. He was ahead of his time in showing roles that shown the intellect, power, and dignity of black people. He performed in theater and his breakout role was No Way Out in 1950. No Way Out was about a black doctor living his life in the midst of racial tensions in America. A lot of his films dealt with race, controversial issues, and the humanity of black people. He was the first black man to win an Oscar for Lilies in the Field. He was great in Raisin in the Sun, which was based on the play of the same name from the heroic playwright Lorraine Hansberry. The movie dealt with a black family moving into an integrated neighborhood in the midst of the civil rights movement and the explosion of cultural development in Black America. In the Heat of the Night was another historic film where he slapped the face of a white man on film in self defense. He continued to act in movies, receive awards, and care for his family. Now, the torch has been passed to new actors and actresses to present their talents to the world. Sister Mary Frances Berry is a hero. She is 79 years old. She the Geraldine R. Segal Professor of American Social Thought and Professor of History at the University of Pennsylvania and the former chairwoman of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. She is a great scholar, a great historian, and a great person. She was born in Nashville, Tennessee. During the 1980's, she opposed the reactionary agenda of Ronald Reagan and fought to abolish apartheid in South Africa. When I was in Kindergarten (in 1988), I lived in the Reagan Presidency. Those, who were born back then, knew how extreme Reagan was. She is a lover of equality, of civil rights, and of justice.

There is good news in the world too. Sheila Johnson, who is the billionaire CEO of Salamander Hotels and Resorts (plus she is the part owner of the Washington Capitals of the NHL, the Washington Wizards of the NBA, and the Washington Mystics of the WNBA) to join the Charleston African American Museum board of directors. She will provide the resources to construct the museum by the end of 2019. “Mayor Joe Riley has twisted my arm … so we’re on a journey to get this museum built,” Johnson announced Thursday at an event for the upcoming Hotel Bennett near Marion Square, which her company will manage. Sheila Johnson co-founded BET too. She was born on January 25, 1949 in McKeesport, Pennsylvania. The other good news is that over 1 million visitors have come into the National Museum of African American History and Culture as found in Washington, D.C. During this Black History Month, we celebrate this new milestone. The museum in Washington, D.C. has gorgeous architecture. It has more than 36,000 artifacts and it shows the courage, the beauty, and the resiliency of the African American experience. I am an African American and I’m glad that there is a museum that shows our journey in such an elaborate fashion.

By Timothy

18th Century African Americans























Monday, February 20, 2017

Claudia Jones and other information









Ibtihaj Muhammad was the first US Olympian to wear a hijab

1960'S CBS NEWS REPORT: The Temptations In The Studio!!

History and Culture on this President's Day.

Environmental health is a key part of human development. When I was a child, I had asthma. I had to take allergy shots throughout elementary school. I had to take medicine after having an episode of asthma problems. Today, I don’t have symptoms of asthma anymore, but millions of people in America and worldwide suffer asthma and environmental health issues. Therefore, this issue is very personal with me and I desire our environment to be better. Environmental health deals with the survival of humanity and the rest of the ecosystem plainly speaking. Therefore, we believe in dealing with human health in progressive ways and building up the ecosystem. With the recent flooding in California, it is important to invest in infrastructure in California and nationwide. We want affordable housing for humanity. We have a problem of childhood lead poisoning that must be addressed. We want noise pollution control. We don’t want hazardous waste released in the environment. We believe in regulations that promote food safety involving agriculture, transportation, food processing, etc. Recycling is important in building our lands and we want the quality of life enhanced among the human family. The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) is a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes open access to resources produced by US government agencies and organizations, and is maintained under the umbrella of the Specialized Information Service at the United States National Library of Medicine. TEHIP includes links to technical databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and consumer-oriented resources. It has databases too that give people information on important environmental issues. The organization Truth is one of the greatest organizations that fight smoking and air pollution. For decades, activists have exposed the corrupt policies of Big Tobacco. We not only fight smoking, but we believe in investing in helping people with smoking addiction and those who suffer illnesses and diseases as a product of smoking. We know that low income neighborhoods are more likely to have tobacco retailers near schools (some tobacco companies even came into the Supreme Court to maintain advertising near school grounds). Drug companies in America target cigarette ads in black communities more than in other communities (in about 10 times). That is profiling and it’s wrong. The Michigan Civil Rights Commission said in a report that the Flint drinking water crisis has its root causes in historical and systemic racism. It exposed the problem as a complete failure of government and wants a rewrite of the state’s emergency manager law and bias training for state officials. "Would the Flint water crisis have been allowed to happen in Birmingham, Ann Arbor or East Grand Rapids?" the commission asks in the 135-page report.  We believe that the answer is no, and that the vestiges of segregation found in Flint made it a unique target." "The people of Flint did not enjoy the equal protection of environmental or public health laws, nor did they have a meaningful voice in the decisions leading up to the Flint water crisis," it said. Some want emergency managers to be repealed to be replaced with more democratic processes.

The first Native Americans in Phoenix were the Native Americans. They were hunters and gatherers. They hunted Pleistocene animals like mammoths, mastodons, and giant bisons. Back then, there were ancient horses, camels, and giant sloths in the area whose remains were discovered in the Salt River Alley. The Native Americans lived in the southwestern American region and northern Mexico for tens of thousands of years. This existed in 9,000 B.C. By 7,000 B.C, some Native Americans left the area to be replaced by other Native Americans. This era lasted from ca. 7,000 B.C. until 1 A.D. These human beings were hunters and gatherers. They travel the area too. By about 3,000 years ago, the culture changed into an agricultural lifestyle. Maize around this time was cultivated. The agrarian culture grew. Farming spread. Groups started to show their cultural differences. These differences in the ancient Southwestern territories were among farmers, villagers, and the nomads. The farmer culture was dominated by a tribe called the Hohokam. The Hohokam peoples used petroglyph or writings on stone. They came from Mexico. They were agrarian in their civilization. They traveled as north as the Salt River basins. For more than 2,000 years, the Hohokam peoples traveled into Phoenix.  Hohokam is a present-day name given to the occupants of central and southern Arizona who lived here between about the year 0 and 1450 CE (current era). It is derived from the Pima Native American (Akimel O'odham) word for "those who have gone" or "all used up. The Hohokam travel into the valley has been divided into 5 periods by paleontologists. The earliest period is known as the Pioneer Period, which lasted roughly from 1–700 AD, and was categorized by groups of shallow pit houses, and by its end the first canals were being used for irrigation. Alos, the period saw the first decorated ceramics appearing. This was followed by the Colonial Period (c. 700 – 900 AD), during which time the irrigation system was expanded and the community sizes grew, as did the size of the dwellings. Rock art and ball courts began to appear, and cremations became the usual form of burial. 900 to 1150 AD, referred to as the Sedentary Period, again saw the expansion of the settlements and the canal system. Platform mounds began to be built, and plazas and the ball courts which began to appear in the last period, became more prevalent in the larger settlements. The final period, the Classic Period, lasted approximately from 1150 A.D. until 1450 A.D. The number of villages declined during this period, but the size of the remaining settlements increased. Their canals were about 135 miles which made the desert land arable. Many of these canals are used for the model day Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. By 1300, the Hohokam peoples became the largest population in the Southwest. They traded with the Aztecs and other nearby peoples like the Anasazi, Mogollon, and the Sinagua. Some believed that the Hohokam witness a supernova of 1006. They disappeared from the area by the mid 1400’s possibly either because of drought or flooding. Afterwards, many people came into the area. They were the Akimel O'odham (commonly known as Pima), Tohono O’odham and Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O’odham especially dominated the Phoenix area with irrigation systems, crops, etc. They worked to protect themselves from the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Yuma people traveled and they lived in the Arizona state.

The pre-Columbian era of the Americas is important to be made known. Indigenous societies spread in the Americas. There were the flourishing, complex cultures of the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Mixtec, Aztec, and Maya civilizations. The Inca Empire, the Moche culture, the Muisca Confederation and the Canari existed in the Andres. The Norte Chico civilization of Peru existed around the same time as ancient Egypt. In North America too, there were the Mound cultures. These cultures had urban settlements, agriculture, civic organization, and monumental architecture. They had complex societal hierarchies. Oral traditions were common and written languages existed. Many European colonists burned many pre-Columbian written records, which was wrong. Native Americans made great contributions in human history. For instance, the Aztecs built one of the largest cities in the world, Tenochtitlan, the ancient site of Mexico City, with an estimated population of 200,000. Ancient American civilizations also displayed impressive accomplishments in astronomy and mathematics. The domestication of maize or corn required thousands of years of selective breeding, and continued cultivation of multiple varieties was done with planning and selection, generally by women. Inuit, Yupik, Aleut, and American Indian creation myths tell of a variety of origins of their respective peoples. Some were "always there" or were created by gods or animals, some migrated from a specified compass point, and others came from "across the ocean.” European colonization in the Americas existed since the Vikings. This changed the Americas forever. Scholars estimate that the Native American populations diminished by 80 to 90 percent within the first centuries of contact with Europeans from the 15th century.  Epidemics ravaged the Americas with diseases such as smallpox, measles, and cholera, which the early explorers brought from Europe and which spread quickly into new areas even before later explorers and colonists reached them. Native Americans suffered high mortality rates due to their lack of prior exposure to these diseases. Conflicts between colonists and indigenous people exacerbated the loss of lives. Colonists frequently perpetrated massacres on the indigenous groups and enslaved them.  According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), the North American Indian Wars of the 19th century cost the lives of about 19,000 whites and 30,000 Native Americans. By the 15th and early 16th centuries, Spanish and Portuguese colonists were most of the colonists in the Americas. Columbus encountered 250,000 Taino Native Americans in Hispaniola. Their culture was dominate in the Greater Antilles. Many Tainos died by 70 percent after 30 years of Columbus' arrival. Many Tainos were forced to work in encomiendas, forced to do labor, and some died out of measles and smallpox. Many Tainos fought back too. The Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regard to native Native Americans. The laws forbade the maltreatment of natives and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. In distant colonies, conversion was more difficult. Smallpox and other diseases killed a large portion of the Native American population in the Americas.  Smallpox killed millions of native inhabitants of Mexico. Unintentionally introduced at Veracruz with the arrival of Pánfilo de Narváez on April 23, 1520, smallpox ravaged Mexico in the 1520's, possibly killing over 150,000 in Tenochtitlán (the heartland of the Aztec Empire) alone, and aiding in the victory of Hernán Cortés over the Aztec Empire at Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) in 1521. The English, the Dutch, the French, and other Europeans spread into the Americas for colonization as well. The Age of Exploration grew and it was filled with religious deception, violence, and genocide. The exchange of animals, plants, culture, etc. from the post 1492 era is called the Columbian Exchange. Spanish conquistador Francisco Vazquez de Coronado explored northern of Mexico. By 1600, Spain dominated Florida and New Mexico. The English colonies were in the East Coast of America. The Dutch had colonies in NYC and the Caribbean. The other colonial powers of Sweden, Russia, etc. had territories too. Conflicts arisen in the Americas among Native Americans, colonists, pirates, and other peoples. Also, there was the influx of kidnapped Africans who came into the Americas. This event of the terrible Maafa changed the landscape of the Americas forever.

The Trump regime has ironically enough grown a progressive movement. In just one week after his inauguration, millions of people worldwide protested against him in the Women’s March. They or the activists abhorred Trump’s agenda of immigrant bashing, misogyny, bigotry, and his reactionary agenda. The antiwar movement is still in existence. The Black Lives Matter movement has been forthright in opposing racist police violence. Black Lives Matter is a historic movement that has expanded and caused more people to address racism, economic injustice, and police terror never seen since the 1960’s & the 1970’s. There have been protests in London, Berlin, Munich, and Frankfurt to oppose fascism including injustice too. Neo-fascists like Richard Spencer will be defeated of their agenda in the end. Steve Bannon being a chief strategist and senior counselor of the White House is a disgrace. Crowds of courageous, progressive people have been in meetings to stand up for health care and to oppose evil policies. The Republican dominated Congress is clear on what they want. They believe in privatizing health care, cutting taxes for the super wealthy, removing and ending environmental regulations, depriving voting rights, and using other repugnant policies. Also, the leadership of both major parties have funded more military spending and an aggressive, imperialist foreign policy. This is not new. Lee Atwater admitted that Republicans used race baiting and other bigoted tactics under the guise of talking about “forced busing, states’ rights, tax cuts, etc.” We reject the myths that the wealthy alone create jobs or that rural towns alone represent the only component of America. Rural, urban, suburban, and other peoples represent America. While deportations are in existence now, many people are resisting such policies. Trump deserves no conciliatory tone. He deserves our opposition. A ban on refugees, a scapegoating of Muslims, a proposed U.S.-Mexico border wall, and support of stop and frisk by Trump is totally wrong. Also, it is important to support the rights of the Black working class and the black poor. There is no total human freedom without addressing the social and economic needs of black people. Political independence is a necessary too. We won’t ally with a party of racism, xenophobia, and bigotry. Also, many people are tired of another party that focuses on neoliberalism and compromises to please GOP extremists. There is something wrong with capitalism with record income inequality and massive poverty. There is something wrong with that. That is why race and class must be viewed together in forming solutions. You can’t defeat racism without ending economic inequality and you can’t end economic inequality without ending racism. Unity, collaboration, and coalitions must be instituted in order for us to see the Dream of justice and equality to be made real. We shall overcome.

Basketball expanded rapidly during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The YMCA helped to spread basketball throughout America, Canada, and the world. By 1893, Mel Rideout created the first European basketball game in Paris in Montmartre. At the same time, Bob Gailey sent basketball in Tientsin, China. Duncan Patton came into India to spread basketball. There were Genzabaro Ishikawa to Japan, and C. Hareek to Persia to send the sport of basketball to those nations. When World War I came about in 1914, the U.S. Army soon fought in Europe by 1917. The American Expeditionary Force in WWI took basketball wherever it went.   Together with the troops, there were hundreds of physical education teachers who knew basketball. Naismith also spent two years with the YMCA in France in that period. The first professional league was founded in 1898. Six teams took part in the National Basketball League, and the first champions were the Trenton Nationals, followed by the New York Wanderers, the Bristol Pile Drivers and the Camden Electrics. The league was abandoned in 1904. Then, many small championships were organized, but most of them were not as important as some teams who played for money against challengers. There were the Original Celtics who were famous back during the early 20th century. They played until 1928. Some viewed the team as the forerunners of the Boston Celtics of the NBA. Yet, the team is not. The Boston Celtics was created in 1946.  In 1922, the first all-African American professional team was founded: the Rens (also known as New York Renaissance or Harlem Renaissance). The Rens were the Original Celtics’ usual opponent, and for their matches a ticket cost $1. They took part in some official championships and won the first World Professional Basketball Tournament in 1939. The team disbanded in 1949. In the 1920's and 1930's, Eastern Basketball League (founded in 1909), Metropolitan Basketball League (founded in 1921) and American Basketball League (founded in 1925) were the most important leagues in America.

By Timothy

Sunday, February 19, 2017

Black History Month (Timeline)



More News









Heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali got together with civil rights leader ...

Resistance and reaction in the time of Trump


Trump's victory and the necessity of solidarity


Friday, February 17, 2017

Epic History: World War One - 1918

Epic History: The Russian Revolution

Trump and the alt-right


An emergency caused by neglect


Friday News in mid-February 2017.

There are many points to be made and I won't hold back on what I think. I was about to mention a whole lot of other words and we know what those words are. First, those who lie and said that the film is racist actually don't know the real meaning of racism. Racism involves lynching, slavery, Jim Crow, the prison industrial complex, the peonage system, and other atrocities. The film wanted to precisely make the point that many colleges have anti-black white racists in them who want to make black voices invisible and malleable to the interests of the establishment. The film is a blatant satire and wants to promote reconciliation. The film is far from racist. So, white fragility and white tears are part of the criticism of the moderate film Dear White People. Every time people want to expose white racists, some folks slander those folks as "racist." White people are not immune form legitimate critique. If those ungrateful haters want a boycott, then we have the right to boycott racists who are anti-black people. Our black ancestors build up a great deal of this nation, fought for civil rights, and stood up for justice before any of these haters were born. We sacrificed a great deal with our blood for this nation and others disrespect the contributions of black people. Some black far right people along with their white racist counterparts also believe in the myth that bootstrapping alone causes liberation. We know that isn't true.

Freedom is caused by a demand and by a struggle for justice using any legitimate means necessary. People fought to achieve solutions and we shall fight as black people for justice. The same haters of Dear White People refuse to boycott the cartoon (which supports DeVos) that mocks the suffering of Ruby Bridges. We know how many Trump supporters are. They are giving excuses to a sexist, bigot while ignoring the necessity for international revolutionary change. They follow the words of an extremist white male instead of following truth and honor. Also , it is important to acknowledge the black people now working day in day out in teaching children, in working in community programs, in helping society in general. Some evil people want to ignore their work, but we won't. We will always honor and respect Brothers and Sisters doing hard work in helping black people live and direct. We have a long way to go, but we will continue in our journey. Those, who believe in boycotting the film Dear White House, should be ashamed of themselves. We are strident in promoting our Blackness and we desire real social change in our world. While white intellectual mediocrity is shown in the White House, we believe in Black Excellence and Black Liberation. We need housing rights, economic justice, and the protection of our environment. There is no true, comprehensive freedom without helping the environment in which you live in and the fight for economic justice.

People don't have to be fans of Beyonce, but Carlos quickly clarified, because he knows what he said would cause the Beyhive to respond. Beyonce can sing greatly. Of course, she can't sing greater than Whitney, Aretha Franklin, or Mahalia Jackson. Yet, she does know how to sang. Her songs prove it from I Care, Start Over, Radio, Listen, Hello, Halo, Sweet Dreams, Pretty Hurts, and other records. Those songs don't have struggle notes and her recent live performance has her making no mistakes. Beyonce came from Houston to display sacrifice in utilizing her craft in singing, dancing, and acting. Ironically, Carlos performed with Beyonce, but Carlos is basically saying that Beyonce is just a dancer and not a singers singer, which is very disrespectful. The truth is that Beyonce is more than a dancer. She is a singer too. Therefore, Carlos Santana is a great artist, but many people don't know that Beyonce can actually sing, act (as she has been in multiple movies), and do dancing, which other musicians can't do. Therefore, Beyonce is an artist who should be respected as a black woman and as a musical artist. No one has to bow down to her or even be fans of her. People should respect her dignity though. That is the precise point. These slick shots by Santana is about him supporting Adele, but Adele even made more positive comments about Beyonce than Carlos (who has a black wife). On this issue, I have to pick sides. I'm riding with my people on this one. Beyonce is owed respect for her contributions to music.

For decades, Michelle Obama has broken down barriers, inspired women, and shown her light as a living representation of Black Excellence completely. She came from the South side of Chicago and she has never forgotten her roots. Through determination, hard work, and family, she achieve magnificent accomplishments involving law, and other aspects of human living. She is the greatest First Lady in American history. She has stood by her husband throughout his Presidency. She and her husband love both of their children a great deal. She has enhanced her husband. It is the big lie that a strong woman emasculates a man. In fact, a woman and a man has every right to be intelligent, compassionate, and strong regardless of what society says. Michelle Obama has advanced fitness, education, and the rights of girls plus women worldwide. She has inspired a generation of black people to continue forth in the long legacy of our ancestors who desired justice and human liberation.
Her characteristics definitely include courage, grace, strength, magnanimous compassion, and a sense of purpose to help out humanity in positive ways. People miss her now. She doesn't want to be President and we honor her decision. Likewise, we see the truth and the current occupier of the White House (who is a male who embraces extremism) is antithetical to the progressive values that Michelle Obama represents. So, we give great honor and praise for the historic, awe inspiring legacy of Sister First Lady Michelle Obama.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Levar Burton too. He is now 60 years old. For decades, he has been an actor, an education advocate, and a social activist. He was born in Germany as his father was in the military. He was raised in Sacramento, California. He is famous for his role in Roots as Kunte Kente and for his show Reading Rainbow, which lasted from 1983 to 2006. I was raised on Reading Rainbow when I was a child. He promotes a cure against HIV/AIDS. He has been active in philanthropy and he has a great wife including great children. He played on Star Trek and he is a great role model for the youth and adults too. He is a great Brother. Yesterday was the Birthday of Brother Jerome Bettis. He is a legend and he was a Champion who won a Super Bowl for the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006. He is also a Hall of Famer. He is 46 years old now. He was born in Detroit, Michigan. The Jerome Bettis Bus Stops Here Foundation and other agencies sponsor the Jerome Bettis Asthma and Sports Camp annually for children with asthma. Bettis has also delivered over 1000 pairs of cleats to children in the Detroit school system. He's a great person. I wish the best for Sister Mary-Pat Hector (who is 19 years old). We live in a new era of time. More young people should run for office. We need health care, environmental justice, civil liberties protected, housing, and other human rights for human beings. The youth have a vibrant spirit, great intellectual curiosity, and a sense of purpose to stand up and speak up for the real changes that we desire.

By Timothy

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

BEST Black radical socialist speech ever! - Paul Robeson

Frederick Douglas




The Flynn scandal

Today, we witness a crisis in the Trump regime. Michael Flynn has resigned after it was found that he communicated with a Russian official and promised to scale back on the anti-Russian sanctions. We know that the NSA monitored communications as the NSA monitors Russian intelligence constantly. On Tuesday afternoon, it was reported that the FBI interviewed Flynn soon after Trump’s inauguration about his telephone conversation with the Russian ambassador to Washington, Sergey Kislyak, on December 29, 2016. The call was secretly monitored and recorded by the National Security Agency. The Washington Post revealed that Justice Department officials informed the White House several weeks ago that Flynn had discussed US sanctions on Russia with the ambassador, and that his repeated denials of that fact were false. A transcript of the Flynn-Kislyak conversation is reportedly circulating at the highest levels of official Washington. Flynn is no longer a National Security Advisor. So, this story is a fight inside of the American political establishment over the direction of foreign policy. On faction (which is headed by the NSA, the CIA, and other intelligence agencies) wants a more anti-Russian approach even leading into a military confrontation with Russia possibly, which is wrong and extremist. The other faction (which has more allies in the Trump regime) wants more tension primarily with China. Yet, all of these competing factions desire the expansion of American imperial interests. Now, people want an investigation to figure out what is going on. The New York Times has reported that Trump campaign advisers communicated with Russians. Therefore, the capitalist state instruments of the White House, the Pentagon, the CIA, the FBI, the NSA, etc. are debating with each other on how to deal with Russia. Some people are rising the specter of impeachment. Trump could be impeached. Both parties are blatantly militaristic in its leaderships. Many Democrats have criticized Trump, but many of them voted for everyone of Trump's nominees and some Democrats believe in imperialistic aggression. Putin is not a paragon of virtue. Like Trump, Putin is a right wing nationalist autocrat. We know the cruise missile launch by Russia and the spy ship deployed off the coast of Delaware. There should be an independent investigation of the facts, but there should be no unjust military action against Russia or China. Therefore, we want political independence.

First, I am glad that the Brother is alive. Many people have committed suicide, because of many reasons. Life is not a crystal stair. Our history as black people is a testament to that reality. We know about the peaks and valleys that our people have gone through. We have experienced the evils of the Maafa, of slavery, of Jim Crow tyranny, and of other atrocities. Jedidiah Brown is a young man who is crying out for compassion and help. I do hope that he receives professional help and all of the encouragement during his trying time. He lost his nephew and this is real. This isn't some game. Many black people for centuries and thousands of years have experienced emotional trauma, hurt, and pain. I also feel that we have to realize that human liberation isn't just about rights, political power, or economic power. It is about healing too. The Brother made the excellent point about the necessity for healing in our communities, so we can reach our highest human potential. We have to discuss about suicide, mental health, and other important issues in order for us to heal. Our ancestors experienced the worst form of slavery in human history. Therefore, it is imperative for us to give people emotional support. I wish the best for the Brother.

This issue should be broken down into many things. On issues such as these, I'm going into a nuanced direction. First, Solange is Beyonce's sister, so I don't fault Solange for defending Beyonce in that way. Solange is expressing the views of how many black people feel about the Grammys. We also have many award shows outside of the Grammys that rewards black excellence in music from the BET Awards, Soul Train Music Awards, to the NAACP Image Awards show. Those shows count. Some black celebrities should bring more awareness on those awards shows that explicitly award black musicians beyond just the Grammys. Also, it is very clear that some white musicians back then and today mimic black musical expression without credit and without respect to black artists. This is not new. Adele, to her credit, has acknowledged Beyonce's album Lemonade as having an international impact and Adele has said to Beyonce that she should have won the Best Album award instead of her. Adele knows how to sing greatly, but some people go overboard in comparing her to Aretha (which isn't the case). Jazzmun Sullivan in my view have better vocals than Adele. It is bigger than Adele too.

It is about a system in society that rewards many who mimic the culture and singing abilities of black human human beings while hating black bodies. That's precisely the point. Regardless of how people feel about Beyonce and Lemonade, we are still fighting for global change. People, as diverse as Beyonce to Diana Ross, are part of black music. Ultimately, the voters in the Grammys decide. The Grammys in my view wasn't going to award Lemonade with the best album when Lemonade had many overtly political messages in it (over Adele). The Grammys didn't award D'angelo's Black Messiah album, which was one of the D'angelo's greatest albums (and it was very political). Is there racism & elitism in the Grammys back then and today? Oh yes, there is. There are tons of black people now making great music, but many of them don't have the same opportunities as other artists possess. Artists,who truly love the craft , want opportunities without copying the status quo. I will also say that many celebrities have to support black award shows too. Solange has made a recently classic album that touched on so many issues from self care to black women human rights.

Yesterday was the birthday of a legendary black hero. His name is Frederick Douglas. He survived unspeakable atrocities and injustices, but he came out of slavery to proclaim the credo that liberty and justice are sacrosanct concepts that we're all fighting for. He spoke nationwide and worldwide to expose the injurious evil of slavery. He came out to speak in favor human equality and he believed in women's rights as well. His sons fought for the Union side in order for them to defeat the Confederacy. Frederick Douglas gave eloquent, powerful speeches on a multitude of subjects. He opposed the Chinese Exclusion Act and he abhorred xenophobia. Xenophobia is evil period. He wrote three autobiographies. He was born in Maryland and he lived a long time in the world. Frederick Douglas was an intellectual genius who was one of the greatest African American leaders of all time. He has inspired all of us during our time too. Anna Murray-Douglas loved him and she was a courageous black woman. Anna Murray-Douglas was an abolitionist, an activist, and she worked in the Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglas traveled into Britain and Ireland to support his causes. He was always a spiritual man who believed that social activism is key in enriching the soul and society. On February 20, 1895, Douglass attended a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, D.C. During that meeting, he was brought to the platform and received a standing ovation. Shortly after he returned home, Frederick Douglass passed away of a massive heart attack or stroke. He was 77. Frederick Douglas was buried in Rochester, New York. His legend is forever and his cause still stirs our minds.
Rest in Power Brother Frederick Douglas.

By Timothy

Monday, February 13, 2017

Black Agenda Report













Laws from South Africa's Apartheid Era


Monday News in Mid-February of 2017

From the 1960’s to the 1980’s, the city of Phoenix further developed. The city metropolitan area has grown and it became a large tourist destination. It has an exotic desert setting. Many recreational opportunities existed and nightlife plus civil events flourished in the Central Avenue. By this time, Central Avenue was filled with skyscrapers. The Phoenix Corporate Center opened in 1960. Back then, it was the tallest building in Arizona at 341 feet. By 1964, there was the completion of the Rozenweig Center or Phoenix City Square. Architect Wenceslaus Sarmiento's largest project, the landmark Phoenix Financial Center (better known by locals as the "Punch-card Building" in recognition of its unique southeastern facade), was also finished in 1964. In addition to a number of other office towers, many of Phoenix's residential high-rises were built during this decade. The growth in Phoenix didn’t transpire evenly. This pattern existed in other cities too. The growth was mainly in the city’s north side, which was a location that was nearly all white. In 1962, one local activist testified at a U.S. Commission on Civil Rights hearing. This person said that of 31,000 homes that was recently spurning up in the neighborhood, not a single one had been sold to an African American. Phoenix’s African American and Mexican American communities remained mostly in the south side of Phoenix. The color lines were so rigid that no one north of Van Buren Street would rent to the African American baseball star Willie Mays (who was in town for spring training during the 1960’s). In 1964, a reporter from the New Republic wrote of segregation in these terms: "Apartheid is complete. The two cities look at each other across a golf course." People would fight against segregation in Phoenix too. In 1965, the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum was opened on the grounds of the Arizona State Fair. This location was west of downtown. In 1968, the city was awarded the Phoenix Suns NBA franchise in a surprising fashion. The Phoenix Suns played its home games at the Coliseum until 1992. By 1968, the Central Arizona Project was approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson. This action assured future water supplies for Phoenix, Tucson, and the agricultural corridor in between. In 1969, the Catholic Church created the Diocese of Phoenix on December 2, by splitting the Archdiocese of Tucson. The first bishop was Reverend Edward A. McCarthy, who had become a Bishop in 1965.

In 1971, Phoenix adopted the Central Phoenix Plan. This allowed unlimited building heights along Central Avenue. The problem was that the plan didn’t sustain long term development of the Central Corridor. There were few office towers constructed along the North Central during the 1970’s. None approached the scope of construction during the previous decade. Downtown experienced a resurgence. There was a great level of construction activity. This would not be seen again until the urban real estate boom of the 2000’s. Many high rise buildings were erected, including the buildings currently named Wells Fargo Plaza, the Chase Tower (at 483 feet, the tallest building in both Phoenix and Arizona) and the U.S. Bank Center.  By the end of the decade, Phoenix adopted the Phoenix Concept 2000 plan which split the city into urban villages, each with its own village core where greater height and density was permitted, further shaping the free-market development culture. This officially turned Phoenix into a city of many nodes, which would later be connected by freeways. 1972 would see the opening of the Phoenix Symphony Hall. The Salt River flooded in 1980. That flood damaged many bridges. So, the Arizona Department of Transportation and Amtrak worked together. They temporarily operated a train service. It has been referred to by the Valley Metro Rail known as “Hattie B” line. It existed between central Phoenix and the southeast suburbs. There were high operating costs and a lack of interest from local authorities in funding, so it was discontinued. Sandra Day O’Connor (who was born in Texas and grew up in Arizona) was the first woman justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. She was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on September 25, 1986. In 1985, the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the nation's largest nuclear power plant, began electrical production. Conceived in 1980, the Arizona Science Center, located in Heritage and Science Park, opened in 1984. 1987 saw visits by Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa. The 20 story City Hall was opened in Phoenix in 1992. There were many areas being developed to help refugees from Afghanistan, Bosnia, the Sudan, Somalia, Congo, Sierra Leona, Laos, Vietnam, and Central and South America. Many of the refugees from those nations lived in the Sunnyslope area with low cost housing. Students and adults spoke 43 different languages in local schools by the year of 2000. In the 21st century, Phoenix continued to grow economically. Its population grew too. It was the second fastest metropolitan area in America under Las Vegas. The Phoenix Light Rail developed in 2008. It would connect Phoenix, Tempe, and Mesa. Squaw Peak, the second tallest mountain in the city, was officially renamed Piestewa Peak after Army Specialist Lori Ann Piestewa, an Arizona native who was the first Native American woman to die in combat with the U.S. military. Also, she was the first American female casualty in the 2003 Iraq War. Phoenix was hit hard by the subprime mortgage crisis.  In early 2009, the median home price was $150,000, down from its $262,000 peak in recent years. Crime rates in Phoenix have declined in recent years and once troubled, decaying neighborhoods such as South Mountain, Alhambra, and Maryvale, have recovered and stabilized. Recently, Downtown Phoenix and the central core have experienced renewed interest and expansion, resulting in numerous restaurants, stores and businesses opening or relocating to central Phoenix.

Basketball has a long history in its invention. It was invented by Dr. James Naismith (who was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1959). He was an educator in physical education and he was born in Canada. In 1891, he invented basketball. He was working at the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. He wanted to invent a new game, because he was in the winter and young people were forced to play sports indoors. He wanted to promote a more athletic sport in the midst of the disruptive group of students. He also wanted to condition young athletes during cold months. Dr. Naismith used his mind to invent a game of skill, finesse, and accuracy instead of one relying solely on pure strength. He played a game as a child when he used rocks. He used a soccer ball and two peach baskets placed 10 feet up in the air. He organized nine players on each team. He created a set of 13 basic rules and basketball was formed. The first game was played on December 21, 1891.  The eighteen players were John G. Thompson, Eugene S. Libby, Edwin P. Ruggles, William R. Chase, T. Duncan Patton, Frank Mahan, Finlay G. MacDonald, William H. Davis and Lyman Archibald, who defeated George Weller, Wilbert Carey, Ernest Hildner, Raymond Kaighn, Genzabaro Ishikawa, Benjamin S. French, Franklin Barnes, George Day and Henry Gelan 1–0.  The goal was scored by Chase. Initially, players could only advance the ball by passing it. Bouncing the ball along the floor — what we call "dribbling" today — did not become part of the game until later. Points were earned by successfully tossing the soccer ball into the peach baskets.   After each basket that was made, players had to climb a ladder to retrieve the ball from the basket. Iron hoops with open-ended nets didn't come along until 1913.  The first public game was played in Springfield, Massachusetts on March 11, 1892. The first college basketball game was played on January 18, 1896, when the University of Iowa hosted a game with the University of Chicago. The final score was: Chicago 15, Iowa 12.  Only in 1906 were metal hoops, nets and backboards introduced. Moreover, the earlier the soccer ball was replaced by a Spalding ball, similar to the one used today.

One of the most important environmental crisis in the 21st century is about the Flint water crisis. Corporations allowed poisoned water to go into the Flint area after clean water from the Detroit area was rejected. Activists have helped people in Flint, but more work is needed. Many communities nationwide and worldwide face lead contamination too. A Reuters report found that almost 3,000 areas in America have lead poisoning high rates. Some of these areas are found in Baltimore (according to the Reuters report, Freddie Gray, who was from Baltimore and was killed at the custody of the police in April of 2015, was a victim of lead poisoning. Gray and his family filed a lawsuit against the landlord of the row house where they were living in Baltimore’s Sandtown-Winchester neighborhood in 2008), Cleveland, and Philadelphia. The CDC doesn’t have a regulatory authority to force states to act to end this massive level of lead poisoning in America. There has been a very significant drop in tested levels of lead in blood samples since the US government banned the use of lead in gasoline about 40 years ago, but we have a long way to go. The providing of clean, safe drinking water is a human right. All human beings need access to water for survival literally (early civilizations in Sumeria, Egypt, ancient Rome, ancient Greece, etc. used water treatment technologies. Ancient Rome had aqueducts to spread water over hundreds of miles. The Industrial Age improved the treatment of distribution of water).

Philadelphia built the first US municipal water system beginning in 1801 in the wake of a devastating yellow fever epidemic. Water was piped into the city and was freely available to citizens at public hydrants. It was also the first city in the world, in 1804, to use cast iron pipes for its water mains. Water is necessary for agriculture, industry, personal hygiene, and cooking. We know that the Flint disaster is not just about lead poisoning in the water supply. It is about all levels of government having authorities that made it their duty to ignore studies of Flint high level lead levels and the lack of oversight to fight against this problem.  Local officials, with the complicity of the state government and the federal Environmental Protection Agency, made the decision to use highly corrosive water from the Flint River in place of the city’s longtime water source without applying corrosion controls. The Flint River water leached lead from the city’s antiquated piping, leading to the contamination of the water supply. Flint River water is also linked to an outbreak of Legionnaires disease that caused at least 10 deaths. Flint is a victim of deindustrialization too and the working class and the poor nationwide have been stripped of their economic rights. This is a very important issue. Less than one percent of the earth’s water is suitable for drinking in its natural state. The rest is in the oceans or the polar ice caps. Some 98 percent of liquid fresh water is ground water, much of it very deep beneath the earth’s surface, making pumping expensive. Despite this, there is ample water to supply human needs given the development of modern technologies. This is why lead pipes should be banned and eradicated nationwide and worldwide. A nationwide, multibillion dollar infrastructure project is needed to replace lead pipe and to provide safe drinking water to all from Flint to other communities. Private interests (in pursuit of capitalist profit instead of advancing the social need of humanity) should never dominate every aspect of our economic and social life. We need public power as the power of the people is powerful enough to change lives positively.

By Timothy